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Male dogs four times more likely to develop contagious cancer on nose or mouth than females

Mon, 04/07/2022 - 00:01

A new study has found that male dogs are four to five times more likely than female dogs to be infected with the oro-nasal form of Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumour.

Researchers think this is because of behaviour differences between the sexes: male dogs spend more time sniffing and licking female dogs’ genitalia than vice versa.

Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumour, or CTVT, is an unusual cancer – it is infectious and can spread between dogs when they come into contact. The living cancer cells physically ‘transplant’ themselves from one animal to the other.

CTVT commonly affects dogs’ genitals and is usually transmitted during mating. But sometimes the cancer can affect other areas like the nose, mouth and skin.

In the study, the researchers reviewed a database of almost 2,000 cases of CTVT from around the globe and found that only 32 CTVT tumours affected the nose or mouth. Of these, 27 cases were in male dogs.

“We found that a very significant proportion of the nose or mouth tumours of canine transmissible cancer were in male dogs,” said Dr Andrea Strakova in the University of Cambridge’s Department of Veterinary Medicine, first author of the paper. She performed this study with colleagues from the Transmissible Cancer Group, led by Professor Elizabeth Murchison.

Strakova added: “We think this is because male dogs may have a preference for sniffing or licking the female genitalia, compared to vice versa. The female genital tumours may also be more accessible for sniffing and licking, compared to the male genital tumours.”

The findings are published today in the journal Veterinary Record.

CTVT first arose several thousand years ago from the cells of one individual dog; remarkably, the cancer survived beyond the death of this original dog by spreading to new dogs. This transmissible cancer is now found in dog populations worldwide, and is the oldest and most prolific cancer lineage known in nature.

CTVT isn’t common in the UK, although case numbers have risen in the past decade. This is thought to be linked to the import of dogs from abroad. The disease occurs worldwide but is mostly linked to countries with free-roaming dog populations.

“Although canine transmissible cancer can be diagnosed and treated fairly easily, veterinarians in the UK may not be familiar with the signs of the disease because it is very rare here,” said Strakova.

She added: “We think it’s important to consider CTVT as a possible diagnosis for oro-nasal tumours in dogs. Treatment is very effective, using single agent Vincristine chemotherapy, and the vast majority of dogs recover.”

The most common symptoms of the oro-nasal form of the cancer are sneezing, snoring, difficulty breathing, nasal deformation or bloody and other discharge from the nose or mouth.

Genital cases of CTVT occur in roughly equal numbers of male and female dogs.

Transmissible cancers are also found in Tasmanian Devils, and in marine bivalves like mussels and clams. The researchers say that studying this unusual long-lived cancer could also be helpful in understanding how human cancers work.

The research was funded by the Wellcome and International Canine Health Postgraduate Student Inspiration Awards from the Kennel Club Charitable Trust.

Reference

Strakova, A. et al: ‘Sex disparity in oronasal presentations of canine transmissible venereal tumour.’ Veterinary Record, July 2022. DOI: 10.1002/vetr.1794

Sniffing or licking other dogs’ genitalia – the common site of Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumour – can spread this unusual cancer to the nose and mouth.

CancerAndrea StrakovaElizabeth MurchisonDepartment of Veterinary MedicineSchool of the Biological SciencesAlthough canine transmissible cancer can be diagnosed and treated fairly easily, vets in the UK may not be familiar with the signs of the disease because it is very rare hereAndrea Strakova CTVT Oronasal Tumours Animation Credit Emma Werner Jan Allen, AMRRICFree roaming dog.


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Highly antibiotic-resistant strain of MRSA that arose in pigs can jump to humans

Tue, 28/06/2022 - 08:00

The strain, called CC398, has become the dominant type of MRSA in European livestock in the past fifty years. It is also a growing cause of human MRSA infections.

The study found that CC398 has maintained its antibiotic resistance over decades in pigs and other livestock. And it is capable of rapidly adapting to human hosts while maintaining this antibiotic resistance.

The results highlight the potential threat that this strain of MRSA poses to public health. It has been associated with increasing numbers of human infections, in people who have and have not had direct contact with livestock.

“Historically high levels of antibiotic use may have led to the evolution of this highly antibiotic resistant strain of MRSA on pig farms,” said Dr Gemma Murray, a lead author of the study, previously in the University of Cambridge’s Department of Veterinary Medicine and now at the Wellcome Sanger Institute.

She added: “We found that the antibiotic resistance in this livestock-associated MRSA is extremely stable – it has persisted over several decades, and also as the bacteria has spread across different livestock species.”

Antibiotic use in European livestock is much lower than it has been in the past. But the researchers say that ongoing reductions in antibiotic use on pig farms - due to recent policy changes - are likely to have a limited impact on the presence of this strain of MRSA in pigs because it is so stable.

While livestock-associated CC398 is found across a broad range of livestock species, it is most commonly associated with pigs. Its rise has been particularly evident in Danish pig farms where the proportion of MRSA-positive herds has increased from less than 5% in 2008 to 90% in 2018. MRSA doesn’t cause disease in pigs.

“Understanding the emergence and success of CC398 in European livestock - and its capacity to infect humans - is vitally important in managing the risk it poses to public health,” said Dr Lucy Weinert in the University of Cambridge’s Department of Veterinary Medicine, senior author of the paper.

The success of CC398 in livestock and its ability to infect humans is linked to three mobile genetic elements in the MRSA genome. These are chunks of genetic material that give the MRSA certain characteristics, including its resistance to antibiotics and its ability to evade the human immune system.

The researchers reconstructed the evolutionary history of two particular mobile genetic elements called Tn916 and SCCmec that confer antibiotic resistance in MRSA, and found they have persisted in a stable way in CC398 in pigs over decades. They also persist when CC398 jumps to humans – carrying with them high levels of resistance to antibiotics commonly used in farming.

In contrast, a third mobile genetic element called φSa3 – which enables the CC398 strain of MRSA to evade the human immune system – was found to have frequently disappeared and reappeared over time, in both human-associated and livestock-associated CC398. This suggests that CC398 can rapidly adapt to human hosts.

“Cases of livestock-associated MRSA in humans are still only a small fraction of all MRSA cases in human populations, but the fact that they’re increasing is a worrying sign,” said Weinert.

Intensification of farming, combined with high levels of antibiotic use in livestock, has led to particular concerns about livestock as reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant human infections.

Zinc oxide has been used for many years on pig farms to prevent diarrhoea in piglets. Due to concerns about its environmental impact and its potential promotion of antibiotic resistance in livestock, the European Union will ban its use from this month. But the authors say this ban may not help reduce the prevalence of CC398 because the genes conferring antibiotic resistance are not always linked to the genes that confer resistance to zinc treatment.

MRSA was first identified in human patients in 1960. Due to its resistance to antibiotics it is much harder to treat than other bacterial infections. The World Health Organisation now considers MRSA one of the world’s greatest threats to human health.

The findings are published today in the journal eLife.

The research was funded by Wellcome, the Medical Research Council and the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Fund.

Reference

Matuszewska, M, Murray, GGR. et al: ‘Stable antibiotic resistance and rapid human adaptation in livestock-associated MRSA.’ ELife, June 2022. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.74819

A new study has found that a highly antibiotic-resistant strain of the superbug MRSA – methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus – has emerged in livestock in the last 50 years, probably due to widespread antibiotic use in pig farming.

Infectious diseasesantimicrobial resistance (AMR)Lucy WeinertGemma MurrayWellcome Sanger InstituteDepartment of Veterinary MedicineSchool of the Biological SciencesCambridge Infectious DiseasesCases of livestock-associated MRSA in humans are still only a small fraction of all MRSA cases in human populations, but the fact that they’re increasing is a worrying sign.Lucy WeinertMark HolmesPig farm


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YesLicense type: Attribution-NoncommericalNews type: NewsSuper Tags: Health and MedicineScience

Chioma Achi: Scaling Up in Public Engagement

Mon, 09/05/2022 - 10:11
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'script', document); //--> Shorthand Story Body:  LinkedInTwitterFacebook Chioma Achi: Scaling Up
in Public Engagement

Breaking up a big vision into small, achievable, impactful, and award-worthy steps

Asking public engagement professionals for advice, and involving numerous people, Chioma is engaging Nigerian famers in the global fight against antimicrobial resistance.

Chioma on location in Nigeria. Credit: Chioma Achi

Chioma on location in Nigeria. Credit: Chioma Achi

Credit: Chioma Achi

Credit: Chioma Achi

When Chioma attended a Researcher Development event about public engagement at the beginning of her PhD, she was just curious to know what it was…but "once you know something, you can't un-know it" they say.

Hence, to the question "How do I raise awareness about antimicrobial resistance?" emerging from her first research field trip, she answered ‘public engagement’!

Antibiotics have been used to treat infections caused by bacteria in both animals and humans for a long time. The misuse and overuse of antibiotics is making many bacteria species evolve to become resistant. As a consequence, treating the infections these bacteria cause is becoming harder, if not impossible. 

Chioma’s research focuses on understanding the transmission of antimicrobial resistance genes in the bacterium Salmonella in samples collected from animals, humans, and the environment in Nigeria. When sampling poultry farms, Chioma realised how difficult it is to link the development of resistance to antibiotics with antibiotic use.

Antibiotics are sold in Nigeria without prescriptions, and farmers do not keep any record of what and how much they use as they are unaware of the consequences of extended use of antibiotics. Chioma came back to Cambridge thinking that her research would have a bigger impact if farmers as well would "pledge to play their part to keep antibiotics working".

"Securing a small pot of money helps you find more funders, as it gives people one more reason to support you: your idea was worthy already of someone else’s support." Chioma Achi Even with only that first training in public engagement she felt her plan to increase farmers’ knowledge on antimicrobial resistance and antibiotics use was very vague. Nigerian poultry farmers were a clear audience, but the desired impact was ambitious, and the undefined programme plan, and resources to achieve it made Chioma feel hesitant. 

The announcement of the Public Engagement Starter Fund moved her from the deadlock.

Meeting the Public Engagement Manager for the School of Clinical Medicine and Biological Sciences helped Chioma "focus on the key aspects of the idea, identify what was achievable, and break down her vision into clear outputs, outcomes, and impact in the short, and in the long term". 

"What made me realise this could be a brilliant project was her knowledge of the community she wanted to work with as well as having already key contacts in the field. Although it was still a plan in its infancy, she had a clear idea of her objectives and what she wanted to achieve. She had the why and whom, so she just needed to tease out the how and what."

Diogo Gomes, Public Engagement Manager for the School of Clinical Medicine and Biological Sciences

If ahead of the meeting Chioma was frightened by the big picture of her plan, she came out of it "appreciating that even a short term impact is still an impact, and a great starting point".

With a clear plan at hand, she successfully applied for the Starter Fund. The fund provides up to £1,500 for novel public engagement projects reaching a specific target audience, or developing a partnership with a community of interest or creating an innovative activity for the Cambridge Festival. 

Obviously, for a program aiming at engaging the poultry farmers of an entire state the budget was not quite enough. However, it acted as a seed to ask Cambridge-Africa for additional funding to carry on the solid plan developed to apply for it. 

Chioma found it easy to reach out to Cambridge-Africa, her PhD sponsor: "Cambridge-Africa is not a traditional funding body, is more like a family in Cambridge."

"If you have a Cambridge-Africa scholarship you are in close and constant conversation with the programme team, and if you participate in forums, and other initiatives they are up-to-date with what you are doing. They are also very keen to support projects that give back to Africa."


Chioma wanted to offer a full-day event to Nigerian poultry farmers: lectures to increase their awareness of the problem and to showcase how to limit the use of antibiotics in farming, followed by focus groups allowing each farmer to develop an action plan specific to their farm. 

The plan also included a pre-engagement mobilisation campaign to attract the target audience to the event, a structured evaluation of its impact, and the distribution of logbooks to record the usage of antibiotics to all attendees - a first step to design national policies and interventions based on evidence of the link between the increased resistance of certain bacteria and antibiotic usage on the ground. Chioma further refined her plan by attending the Engaged Researcher training courses.

Cross-section of participants at event in Nigeria. Credit: Chioma Achi

Cross-section of participants at event in Nigeria. Credit: Chioma Achi

It took a few months to organise the event, as Chioma recruited remotely a team of volunteers that helped to generate interest on the ground ahead of the event, and to find the right people to deliver the event itself.

She reached out to all her previous study and work colleagues currently in universities and practices in Nigeria, as well as to some research collaborators at the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association and at the Poultry Association of Nigeria. 

Chioma Achi in Nigeria carrying out her fieldwork. Credit: Chioma Achi

Chioma Achi in Nigeria carrying out her fieldwork. Credit: Chioma Achi

The question "Do you know someone that can help with…?" turned out to be quite powerful. Starting from close connections she gathered:

  • a pool of final year medical and veterinary students that were trained to distribute surveys to all the farmers at the beginning and at the end of the event, to conduct effective one-to-one interviews with a subgroup of farmers before the event, as well as to lead the focus groups in the second part of the event;
  • a pool of speakers, whose talks combined conveyed both the urgency of tackling antimicrobial resistance, and practical ways to avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics. The speakers included researchers presenting data showing antibiotics resistance increasing over time, a physician sharing real cases of people not responding to drugs after infections, a direct testimonial of bereavement caused by resistance to infection treatments, a farming academic sharing best practices to prevent poultry infections, as well as a Nigerian organic farmer proving that farming without antibiotics is possible.
  • the contacts of relevant government officials, pharmaceutical companies, and the media.

Chioma on location carrying out her research. Credit: Chioma Achi

Chioma on location carrying out her research. Credit: Chioma Achi

"When farmers were working to develop their action plans, I found myself giving them the same advice I received when I was planning this public engagement program: start from the smaller steps, what is definitely feasible; once these small actions are achieved is easier to move to the bigger ones" Chioma Achi The focus groups already showed that farmers had taken on board what they heard in the seminars. Some voiced that they would share the information on preventing poultry infections with their neighbours so that their efforts would not be undermined by the lack of awareness in other farms. 

The success of the event was confirmed by the feedback collected formally via the surveys, as well as informally by speaking with non-farmer attendees.

For instance, the Chairman of the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association’s words show how the event changed the perspective of non-farmers attendees too "[…] the program has enabled us to view the problem from a wider dimension. One of the lessons learnt from this program is that we now have to involve stakeholders such as farmers as we draw up our action plans […]". 

Team who helped Chioma deliver the public engagement. Credit: Chioma Achi

Team who helped Chioma deliver the public engagement. Credit: Chioma Achi

The project was commended by the judges of the Student of the Year Antibiotic Guardian Award which Chioma received in 2020, as well as by the University of Cambridge with the 2020 Early Researcher Vice-Chancellor’s Research Impact and Engagement Award

While Chioma’s phone keeps beeping with farmers sending monthly pictures of their antibiotic logbooks via WhatsApp, any other follow-up engagement in Nigeria has been put on hold by the pandemic.

Nonetheless, she organised an online event for stakeholders other than farmers during World Antimicrobial Awareness Week in November 2020. The event was attended by representatives of the World Health Organization as well as academics, and a summary of the discussion has been published as a white paper for the Nigerian government.

To researchers with public engagement ideas in mind Chioma says "Don’t worry if you have not pieced the plan all together yet, don’t let this stop you. That’s why the Public Engagement team is there! They can help you figure out how to go about it."

"The highlight of the program was seeing participants wanting to adopt a positive behavioural change, and pass the message along too" Chioma Achi If you don’t have yet a public engagement project in mind, you can become skilled at explaining your research while encouraging people to undertake careers in STEM by joining initiatives such as The Brilliant Club.

Chioma has been a tutor for The Brilliant Club throughout her PhD, presenting her research to schools in the UK in a way that merges with their curriculum, and that helps pupils feel that they can achieve their career dreams in STEM. 

"Giving back has become part of me. I benefitted so much from people believing and investing time and resources in me that I have always volunteered to do the same for others."

Chioma’s future plans build upon both her desire to involve the broader farming community in the fight against antimicrobial resistance – her research, for instance, expanded to pig farmers since her first field trip – and upon the takeaways from the event she ran in 2020.

Chioma plans to have key messages for farmers translated in the three main Nigerian languages so as they can be distributed via farmers associations in print, and on air by the local radios.

If you know someone that can help with this…Chioma will be back in Nigeria in the autumn!

Follow Chioma on Twitter and read more about her research in This Cambridge Life and on the Cambridge Global Food Security website.

Keep up to date with Public Engagement for Farmers on AMR project on Twitter and Facebook.

“If people reach out spontaneously from all over to appreciate your work, and you know that you had put a lot of effort to deliver it, and the project had a significant and visible impact, it makes sense to apply for an award and let even more people know about what you are doing” Chioma Achi

Public Engagement Project Credits

Credits: The Poultry Association of Nigeria (Kaduna State Chapter), Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association, Professor Mark Holmes

The project team: Dr Lukman Oyedeji, Dr Ehizibolo Peter, Dr Shehu Shamsudeen, Dr Timothy Okunade, Professor M.D Salihu

The facilitators and speakers: Professor Paul Abdu, Professor Junaidu Kabir, Professor Hauwa’u Yusuf, Mrs. Hannatu Aishatu Ibrahim 

The Panelists: Dr. Usman Umar, Dr Bala Mohammed, Mrs. Saidat Saliu Shonoiki, Dr. Istifanus Anekoson Joshua, Dr. Timothy Okunade

Volunteers:  Dr. Dauda Onawola, Dr. Sabo Ruth Manzo, Dr. Polycarp Dauda Madaki, Ms. Amina Bukar Goni, Ms. Glory Baba-Ojoniko, Ms. Donna Bala-Tige, Dr. Sarah Pinto, Dr. Aminu Mohammed, Ms Sophia Orahii 

Chioma's Public Engagement Journey 2017: begins to tutor for The Brilliant Club, and to act as session leader in the University Postgraduate Outreach Scheme 2018: research fieldtrip in poultry farms in Nigeria reveals lack of awareness around antimicrobials resistance 2018-2019:

- Engaged Researcher trainings (Introduction to Public Engagement, Evaluation of Public Engagement)

- consults with the Public Engagement Manager for the School of Clinical Medicine and Biological Sciences

- asked for advice to Evaluation of Public Engagement trainer

- Public Engagement Starter Fund

- pre-engagement activities for the project
‘Strengthening participation of poultry farmers in the fight against antimicrobial resistance’ 2020:
- Public Engagement Grant from Cambridge-Africa

- public engagement project ‘Strengthening participation of poultry farmers in the fight against antimicrobial resistance’

- Vice-Chancellor’s Research Impact and Engagement Award (category Early Researcher)

- Antibiotic Guardian Award (Student of the Year) commending the engagement work with farmers

- online event for stakeholders other than farmers during World Antimicrobial Awareness Week 2021: Engaged Researcher trainings (Advanced Evaluation of Public Engagement)

Thinking about scaling up in public engagement?

Attend the Engaged Researcher training courses
Apply for University funding
Apply to receive a Vice Chancellor's Award
Apply for Public Engagement Starter Fund

Stay in touch with others involved in public engagement at the University, be notified of training, and funding opportunities:

Sign up for the Public Engagement Bulletin
Join the Public Engagement Network Mailing List

E-mail publicengagement@admin.cam.ac.uk to ask the link to join the Public Engagement Slack Channel, an online workspace for you to connect, share and learn from our community

Image: white chicken on brown wooden table

TopBuilt with Shorthand Summary: 

Asking public engagement professionals for advice, and involving numerous people, Chioma is engaging Nigerian famers in the global fight against antimicrobial resistance.

Image: Affiliation (schools and institutions): Department of Veterinary MedicinePeople (our academics and staff): Chioma AchiSubject (including Spotlight on ... where applicable): Public EngagementSection: Public engagementNews type: Features