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Sugary drinks tax may have prevented over 5,000 cases of obesity a year in year six girls alone

Thu, 26/01/2023 - 19:00

The study, published today in PLOS Medicine, looked at the impact of the levy on reception age children and those in year six, but found no significant association between the levy and obesity levels in year six boys or younger children from reception class.

The research was supported by the National Institute of Health and Care Research (NIHR) and the Medical Research Council.

Obesity has become a global public health problem. In England, one in ten reception age children (four to five years old) is living with obesity and this figure doubles to one in five children in year six (10 to 11 years). Children who are obese are more likely to suffer from serious health problems including high blood pressure, type II diabetes and depression in childhood and in later life.

In the UK, young people consume significantly more added sugars than is recommended – by late adolescence, they typically consume 70g of added sugar per day, more than double the recommended amount (30g). A large source of this is sugar-sweetened drinks. Children from deprived households are more likely to be at risk of obesity and to be heavy consumers of sugar-sweetened drinks.

In April 2018, to protect children from excessive sugar consumption and tackle childhood obesity, the UK governments introduced a two-tier sugar tax on soft drinks – the soft drinks industry levy. The tax was targeted at manufacturers of the drinks to incentivise them to reduce the sugar content of soft drinks.

Researchers from the Medical Research Council (MRC) Epidemiology Unit at the University of Cambridge tracked changes in the levels of obesity in children in England in reception year and year six between 2014 and 2020. Taking account of previous trends in obesity levels, they compared changes in levels of obesity 19 months after the sugar tax came into effect.

The team found that the introduction of the sugar tax was associated with an 8% relative reduction* in obesity levels in year six girls, equivalent to preventing 5,234 cases of obesity per year in this group alone. Reductions were greatest in girls whose schools were in deprived areas, where children are known to consume the largest amount of sugary drinks – those living in the most deprived areas saw a 9% reduction.

However, the team found no associations between the sugar tax coming into effect and changes in obesity levels in children from reception class. In year 6 boys, there was no overall change in obesity prevalence.

Dr Nina Rogers from the MRC Epidemiology Unit at Cambridge, the study’s first author, said: “We urgently need to find ways to tackle the increasing numbers of children living with obesity, otherwise we risk our children growing up to face significant health problems. That was one reason why the UK’s soft drinks industry levy was introduced, and the evidence so far is promising. We’ve shown for the first time that it is likely to have helped prevent thousands of children each year becoming obese.

“It isn’t a straightforward picture, though, as it was mainly older girls who benefited. But the fact that we saw the biggest difference among girls from areas of high deprivation is important and is a step towards reducing the health inequalities they face.”

Although the researchers found an association rather than a causal link, this study adds to previous findings that the levy was associated with a substantial reduction in the amount of sugar in soft drinks.

Senior author Professor Jean Adams from the MRC Epidemiology Unit said: “We know that consuming too many sugary drinks contributes to obesity and that the UK soft drinks levy led to a drop in the amount of sugar in soft drinks available in the UK, so it makes sense that we also see a drop in cases of obesity, although we only found this in girls. Children from more deprived backgrounds tend to consume the largest amount of sugary drinks, and it was among girls in this group that we saw the biggest change.”

There are several reasons why the sugar tax did not lead to changes in levels of obesity among the younger children, they say. Very young children consume fewer sugar-sweetened drinks than older children, so the soft drinks levy would have had a smaller effect. Similarly, fruit juices are not included in the levy, but contribute similar amounts of sugar in young children’s diets as sugar-sweetened beverages.

It’s unclear why the sugar tax might affect obesity prevalence in girls and boys differently, however, especially since boys are higher consumers of sugar-sweetened beverages. One explanation the researchers put forward is the possible impact of advertising – numerous studies have found that boys are often exposed to more food advertising content than girls, both through higher levels of TV viewing and in how adverts are framed. Physical activity is often used to promote junk food and boys, compared to girls, have been shown to be more likely to believe that energy dense junk foods depicted in adverts will boost physical performance and so are more likely to choose energy-dense, nutrient-poor products following celebrity endorsements.

The study was a collaboration involving researchers from the University of Cambridge, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health and University of Bath.

*A relative reduction is the difference between the expected incidence of obesity had the sugar tax not been introduced and the actual incidence.

Reference
Rogers, NT et al. Associations between trajectories of obesity prevalence in English primary school children and the UK soft drink industry levy: an interrupted time series analysis of surveillance data. PLOS Med; 26 Jan 2023; DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1004160

The introduction of the soft drinks industry levy – the ‘sugary drinks tax’ – in England was followed by a drop in the number of cases of obesity among older primary school children, according to Cambridge researchers. Taking into account current trends in obesity, their estimates suggest that around 5,000 cases of obesity per year may have been prevented in year six girls alone.

Spotlight on public healthObesityChildrensugarJean AdamsNina RogersNational Institute for Health Research (NIHR)Medical Research CouncilSchool of Clinical MedicineMedical Research Council (MRC) Epidemiology UnitCambridge Public HealthWe urgently need to find ways to tackle the increasing numbers of children living with obesity, otherwise we risk our children growing up to face significant health problems. That was one reason why the UK’s soft drinks industry levy was introduced, and the evidence so far is promisingNina Rogersti-ja (Getty Images)Child's hands pouring a drink into a glass


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Small-scale octopus fisheries can provide sustainable source of vital nutrients for tropical coastal communities

Thu, 26/01/2023 - 15:23

Research led by Cambridge scientists, and published in Nature Food, shows that tropical small-scale octopus fisheries offer a sustainable source of food and income to communities that face food insecurity, where the prevalence of undernourishment can exceed 40% and stunting in children under five commonly exceeds 30%. 

The high micronutrient density of octopus - including vitamin B12, copper, iron and selenium - means that human populations only need to eat a small quantity to supplement a diet primarily comprising staple plant crops. The new research shows that just a small amount of production in a tropical small-scale octopus fishery can deliver the micronutrient needs to a relatively large number of people.

The fast growth and adaptability of octopuses to environmental change can also facilitate sustainable production, and catch methods in the fisheries - primarily consisting of hand techniques, small-scale lines, pots and traps - are less environmentally harmful than those of large industrial fishing.

Dr David Willer, lead author, from the Department of Zoology at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow at Murray Edwards College, said: “Worldwide, nearly half of people’s calories come from just three crops – rice, wheat, and maize - which are high energy, but relatively low in key nutrients. Just a small serving of something very, very micronutrient rich, like octopus, can fill critical nutritional gaps. And, of course, if you get better nutrition as a child you’re much more physically and mentally prepared for later life, which can lead to better jobs, better employment and better social development.

“These small fisheries also provide an income and a livelihood, often to women whose economic status is enhanced as a result. Small-scale octopus fisheries revolve around local communities and potentially that gives them a greater resilience against market pressures and other disruptions to global food supply and trade.”

Small-scale fisheries, across all sectors, currently provide more than two-thirds of the fish and seafood destined for human consumption worldwide, and employ over 90% of fishers involved in capture fisheries. 47% of the workforce employed in these fisheries are women.

Based on a global review of data from global seafood databases and published literature, and written in partnership with science-led social enterprise Blue Ventures, the research found that in many cases tropical small-scale octopus fisheries are operating using relatively low impact techniques, and when combined with local and national management approaches can provide a more sustainable source of seafood. Successful approaches include periodic fishery closures, size restrictions, and licences. The need for knowledge transfer of fishing gears is also crucial so that the message on fish sustainability and securing the food supply and economic stability is spread widely. 
 

Undernourished coastal communities in the tropics - where children’s growth can be stunted by a lack of micronutrients – can get the vitamins and minerals they need from sustainable small-scale octopus fisheries, say researchers.

EnvironmentGlobal food securityDr David WillerDepartment of ZoologyMurray Edwards CollegeSchool of the Biological SciencesJust a small serving of something very, very micronutrient rich, like octopus, can fill critical nutritional gaps.Dr David Willer, Department of ZoologyBlue Ventures


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YesNews type: NewsSuper Tags: EnvironmentScience

DNA sequencing method lifts ‘veil’ from genome black box

Mon, 23/01/2023 - 16:00

In a paper published in the journal Nature Biotechnology, University of Cambridge researchers have outlined a new DNA sequencing method that can detect where and how small molecule drugs interact with the targeted genome.

“Understanding how drugs work in the body is essential to creating better, more effective therapies,” said co-first author Dr Zutao Yu from the Yusuf Hamied Department of Chemistry. “But when a therapeutic drug enters a cancer cell with a genome that has three billion bases, it’s like entering a black box.”

The powerful method, called Chem-map, lifts the veil of this genomic black box by enabling researchers to detect where small molecule drugs interact with their targets on the DNA genome.

Each year, millions of cancer patients receive treatment with genome-targeting drugs, such as doxorubicin. But despite decades of clinical use and research, the molecular mode of action with the genome is still not well-understood.

“Lots of life-saving drugs directly interact with DNA to treat diseases such as cancer,” said co-first author Dr Jochen Spiegel. “Our new method can precisely map where drugs bind to the genome, which will help us to develop better drugs in the future.”

Chem-map allows researchers to conduct in situ mapping of small molecule-genome interactions with unprecedented precision, by using a strategy called small-molecule-directed transposase Tn5 tagmentation. This detects the binding site in the genome where a small molecule binds to genomic DNA or DNA-associated proteins.

In the study, the researchers used Chem-map to determine the direct binding sites in human leukaemia cells of the widely used anticancer drug doxorubicin. The technique also showed how the combined therapy of using doxorubicin on cells already exposed to the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor tucidinostat could have a potential clinical advantage.

The technique was also used to map the binding sites of certain molecules on DNA G-quadruplexes, known as G4s. G4s are four-stranded secondary structures that have been implicated in gene regulation, and could be possible targets for future anti-cancer treatments.

“I am so proud that we have been able to solve this longstanding problem – we have established a highly efficient approach which will open many paths for new research,” said Yu.

Professor Sir Shankar Balasubramanian, who led the research, said: “Chem-map is a powerful new method to detect the site in the genome where a small molecule binds to DNA or DNA-associated proteins. It provides enormous insights on how some drug therapies interact with the human genome, and makes it easier to develop more effective and safer drug therapies.”

Reference:
Zutao Yu, Jochen Spiegel et al. 'Chem-map profiles drug binding to chromatin in cells.' Nature Biotechnology (2023). DOI: 10.1038/s41587-022-01636-0

Many life-saving drugs directly interact with DNA to treat diseases such as cancer, but scientists have struggled to detect how and why they work – until now.

DNAdrugsG-quadruplexCancergenomeShankar BalasubramanianJochen SpiegelZutao YuYusuf Hamied Department of ChemistrySchool of the Physical SciencesCancer Research UK Cambridge InstituteSchool of Clinical MedicineTrinity CollegeFitzwilliam CollegeKTSDESIGN/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY via Getty ImagesIllustration of DNA molecules


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Scientists explain emotional ‘blunting’ caused by common antidepressants

Mon, 23/01/2023 - 06:00

According to the NHS, more than 8.3 million patients in England received an antidepressant drug in 2021/22. A widely-used class of antidepressants, particularly for persistent or severe cases, is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). These drugs target serotonin, a chemical that carries messages between nerve cells in the brain and has been dubbed the ‘pleasure chemical’.

One of the widely-reported side effects of SSRIs is ‘blunting’, where patients report feeling emotionally dull and no longer finding things as pleasurable as they used to. Between 40-60% of patients taking SSRIs are believed to experience this side effect.

To date, most studies of SSRIs have only examined their short term use, but, for clinical use in depression these drugs are taken chronically, over a longer period of time. A team led by researchers at the University of Cambridge, in collaboration with the University of Copenhagen, sought to address this by recruiting healthy volunteers and administering escitalopram, an SSRI known to be one of the best-tolerated, over several weeks and assessing the impact the drug had on their performance on a suite of cognitive tests.

In total, 66 volunteers took part in the experiment, 32 of whom were given escitalopram while the other 34 were given a placebo. Volunteers took the drug or placebo for at least 21 days and completed a comprehensive set of self-report questionnaires and were given a series of tests to assess cognitive functions including learning, inhibition, executive function, reinforcement behaviour, and decision-making.

The results of the study are published today in Neuropsychopharmacology.

The team found no significant group differences when it came to ‘cold’ cognition – such as attention and memory. There were no differences in most tests of ‘hot’ cognition – cognitive functions that involve our emotions.

However, the key novel finding was that there was reduced reinforcement sensitivity on two tasks for the escitalopram group compared to those on placebo. Reinforcement learning is how we learn from feedback from our actions and environment.

In order to assess reinforcement sensitivity, the researchers used a ‘probabilistic reversal test’. In this task, a participant would typically be shown two stimuli, A and B. If they chose A, then four out of five times, they would receive a reward; if they chose B, they would only receive a reward one time out of five. Volunteers would not be told this rule, but would have to learn it themselves, and at some point in the experiment, the probabilities would switch and participants would need to learn the new rule.

The team found that participants taking escitalopram were less likely to use the positive and negative feedback to guide their learning of the task compared with participants on placebo. This suggests that the drug affected their sensitivity to the rewards and their ability to respond accordingly.

The finding may also explain the one difference the team found in the self-reported questionnaires, that volunteers taking escitalopram had more trouble reaching orgasm when having sex, a side effect often reported by patients.

Professor Barbara Sahakian, senior author, from the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow at Clare Hall, said: “Emotional blunting is a common side effect of SSRI antidepressants. In a way, this may be in part how they work – they take away some of the emotional pain that people who experience depression feel, but, unfortunately, it seems that they also take away some of the enjoyment. From our study, we can now see that this is because they become less sensitive to rewards, which provide important feedback.”

Dr Christelle Langley, joint first author also from the Department of Psychiatry, added: “Our findings provide important evidence for the role of serotonin in reinforcement learning. We are following this work up with a study examining neuroimaging data to understand how escitalopram affects the brain during reward learning.”

The research was funded by the Lundbeck Foundation.

Reference
Langley, C, Armand, S, et al. Chronic escitalopram in healthy volunteers has specific effects on reinforcement sensitivity: A double-blind, placebo-controlled semi-randomised study. Neuropsychopharmacology; 23 Jan 2023; DOI: 10.1038/s41386-022-01523-x

Scientists have worked out why common anti-depressants cause around a half of users to feel emotionally ‘blunted’. In a study published today, they show that the drugs affect reinforcement learning, an important behavioural process that allows us to learn from our environment.

antidepressantsdepressionMental healthNeuroscienceBarbara SahakianChristelle LangleyLundbeck FoundationSchool of Clinical MedicineDepartment of PsychiatryClare CollegeClare HallEthan SykesMan looking out of window


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Gone fishing: highly accurate test for common respiratory viruses uses DNA as ‘bait’

Mon, 16/01/2023 - 16:00

The test uses DNA ‘nanobait’ to detect the most common respiratory viruses – including influenza, rhinovirus, RSV and COVID-19 – at the same time. In comparison, PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests, while highly specific and highly accurate, can only test for a single virus at a time and take several hours to return a result.

While many common respiratory viruses have similar symptoms, they require different treatments. By testing for multiple viruses at once, the researchers say their test will ensure patients get the right treatment quickly and could also reduce the unwarranted use of antibiotics.

In addition, the tests can be used in any setting, and can be easily modified to detect different bacteria and viruses, including potential new variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus which causes COVID-19. The results are reported in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.

The winter cold, flu and RSV season has arrived in the northern hemisphere, and healthcare workers must make quick decisions about treatment when patients show up in their hospital or clinic.

“Many respiratory viruses have similar symptoms but require different treatments: we wanted to see if we could search for multiple viruses in parallel,” said Filip Bošković from Cambridge’s Cavendish Laboratory, the paper’s first author. “According to the World Health Organization, respiratory viruses are the cause of death for 20% of children who die under the age of five. If you could come up with a test that could detect multiple viruses quickly and accurately, it could make a huge difference.”

For Bošković, the research is also personal: as a young child, he was in hospital for almost a month with a high fever. Doctors could not figure out the cause of his illness until a PCR machine became available.

“Good diagnostics are the key to good treatments,” said Bošković, who is a PhD student at St John’s College, Cambridge. “People show up at hospital in need of treatment and they might be carrying multiple different viruses, but unless you can discriminate between different viruses, there is a risk patients could receive incorrect treatment.”

PCR tests are powerful, sensitive and accurate, but they require a piece of genome to be copied millions of times, which takes several hours.

The Cambridge researchers wanted to develop a test that uses RNA to detect viruses directly, without the need to copy the genome, but with high enough sensitivity to be useful in a healthcare setting.

“For patients, we know that rapid diagnosis improves their outcome, so being able to detect the infectious agent quickly could save their life,” said co-author Professor Stephen Baker, from the Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology and Infectious Disease. “For healthcare workers, such a test could be used anywhere, in the UK or in any low- or middle-income setting, which helps ensure patients get the correct treatment quickly and reduce the use of unwarranted antibiotics.”

The researchers based their test on structures built from double strands of DNA with overhanging single strands. These single strands are the ‘bait’: they are programmed to ‘fish’ for specific regions in the RNA of target viruses. The nanobaits are then passed through very tiny holes called nanopores. Nanopore sensing is like a ticker tape reader that transforms molecular structures into digital information in milliseconds. The structure of each nanobait reveals the target virus or its variant.

The researchers showed that the test can easily be reprogrammed to discriminate between viral variants, including variants of the virus that causes COVID-19. The approach enables near 100% specificity due to the precision of the programmable nanobait structures.

“This work elegantly uses new technology to solve multiple current limitations in one go,” said Baker. “One of the things we struggle with most is the rapid and accurate identification of the organisms causing the infection. This technology is a potential game-changer; a rapid, low-cost diagnostic platform that is simple and can be used anywhere on any sample.”

A patent on the technology has been filed by Cambridge Enterprise, the University’s commercialisation arm, and co-author Professor Ulrich Keyser has co-founded a company, Cambridge Nucleomics, focused on RNA detection with single-molecule precision.

“Nanobait is based on DNA nanotechnology and will allow for many more exciting applications in the future,” said Keyser, who is based at the Cavendish Laboratory. “For commercial applications and roll-out to the public we will have to convert our nanopore platform into a hand-held device.”

“Bringing together researchers from medicine, physics, engineering and chemistry helped us come up with a truly meaningful solution to a difficult problem,” said Bošković, who received a 2022 PhD award from Cambridge Society for Applied Research for this work.

The research was supported in part by the European Research Council, the Winton Programme for the Physics of Sustainability, St John’s College, UK Research and Innovation (UKRI), Wellcome, and the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre.

Reference:
Filip Bošković et al. ‘Simultaneous identification of viruses and viral variants with programmable DNA nanobait.’ Nature Nanotechnology (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41565-022-01287-x

A new test that ‘fishes’ for multiple respiratory viruses at once using single strands of DNA as ‘bait’, and gives highly accurate results in under an hour, has been developed by Cambridge researchers.

healthvirusCOVID-19influenzaDNAFilip BoškovićUlrich KeyserStephen BakerEuropean Research CouncilUK Research and Innovation (UKRI)Cavendish LaboratoryDepartment of PhysicsCambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology and Infectious Disease (CITIID)St John's CollegeSchool of the Physical SciencesSchool of Clinical MedicineCambridge EnterpriseGood diagnostics are the key to good treatmentsFilip BoškovićNatalia Gdovskaia via Getty ImagesDoctor examining a patient


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Big data's hidden cost

Mon, 16/01/2023 - 11:42
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'script', document); //--> Shorthand Story Body:  LinkedInTwitterFacebook Big data's hidden cost

The carbon footprint of computational science

By Craig Brierley

Green Leaf inside a Computer Circuit Board (Credit: BlackSalmon/Getty Images)

Green Leaf inside a Computer Circuit Board (Credit: BlackSalmon/Getty Images)

As the climate emergency and cost-of-living crisis focus our minds on how to reduce energy, a group of scientists have highlighted the hidden environmental cost behind some of our major breakthroughs.

High performance computing has transformed how research works and our ability to make previously unthinkable discoveries. We’re able to model our future climate with unprecedented accuracy. We’re able to predict what a protein looks like from its genetic code. We even know what a black hole 55 million light-years away looks like.

But while few people would argue against such progress, it comes with a cost.

In 15 years of writing about medical research, I have found myself writing countless stories about genome-wide association studies, where researchers compare the DNA of potentially hundreds of thousands of people – patients and healthy ‘controls’ – to look for genetic variants that increase our risk of developing a particular disease. Never once did I find myself considering the environmental impact of such studies.

It turns out that it can be quite staggering.

Early this year, a team from Cambridge, together with colleagues at the Baker Institute in Melbourne, Australia, published research showing that a genome-wide association study (GWAS) trawling data from 500,000 participants registered to a biobank database would create a carbon footprint of 17.3kg of CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent) for each genetic trait being studied.

But in fact, researchers would commonly look at thousands of traits. The same GWAS run for 1,000 traits would generate 17.3 tonnes of CO2e. That’s equivalent to 346 flights between Paris and London. (The researchers point out that upgrading the software used to the latest version would reduce this by three-quarters.)

Output from a DNA sequencer (Credit: National Human Genome Research Institute)

Output from a DNA sequencer (Credit: National Human Genome Research Institute)

At the start of 2020, Loic Lannelongue was in the middle of a PhD in health data science at Cambridge’s Department of Public Health and Primary Care. He was a computational biologist, using machine learning to predict how proteins interact in the human body. One of his collaborators was Jason Grealey, an academic based at University of Melbourne, Australia. Lannelongue was watching on the news – and hearing first hand from Grealey – about the bushfires tearing through Australia. This made him reflect on the climate emergency and the part we all play.

A few months earlier, Lannelongue had read about a study that equated training artificial intelligence (AI) to the carbon footprint of five cars over their lifetimes. He began to wonder what the impact of his own work was, and together with Grealey decided to work it out, expecting to find an online calculator that they could just plug their numbers into.

“We started thinking it would be a two week project, a nice break from our PhD research,” says Lannelongue, “just figuring out what the carbon footprint of what we were doing was to get a number and probably tweeting about it. Except there was nothing out there.

"We realised that there was a massive gap, that computational scientists weren’t really thinking about their carbon footprint yet.”

Dr Loic Lannelongue

Since then, with the support of his supervisor, Dr Michael Inouye, Lannelongue has been spending half of his time working on this project, leading to the development of Green Algorithms, a simple online calculator that allows researchers to work out the carbon footprint of their computing work.

This is not the first time the research community has turned the spotlight on its own practices. Some in the community have already been asking questions about the impact of flying across the globe to present their findings at scientific conferences, for example. Others have raised the issue of plastic and chemical waste and energy requirements from so-called ‘wet labs’ – that is, laboratories where experimental work takes place. Computer labs also have a significant impact: equipment needs updating and replacing every few years at a minimum, while even data storage itself requires energy.

2022 CTBT Science Diplomacy Symposium (Credit: The Official CTBTO Photostream)

2022 CTBT Science Diplomacy Symposium (Credit: The Official CTBTO Photostream)

And then there is the computing work itself, of which there is a phenomenal amount these days. To give you an idea of its scale, in 2020, the now-concluded US-based XSEDE (the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment – a virtual system to allow scientists to share computing resources, data and expertise) alone saw researchers use 9 billion compute hours, or 24 million hours per day.

“For powerful calculations, either you need a lot of cores – you basically plug together a lot of computers and they all do the work for you – or you need a lot of memory. Either way, this takes energy.”

Part of the problem, he says, is that computing can feel as if it comes at no cost. Research groups often have free access to high performance computing (HPC) facilities at their institution.

“When you first arrive as a PhD student, you’re like a kid in a candy store – you basically have unlimited computing power at your fingertips. It’s brilliant and it enables great research, so it definitely shouldn’t stop, but the problem is you just think it’s free.”

Dr Loic Lannelongue

He gives the example of a process in machine learning called hyperparameter tuning, which involves testing different configurations of your model to work out which works best. “You never know when you’ve hit the maximum. It just keeps getting better until at some point, you say, ‘Well I think I’ve made it as good as I can’.

“But let’s say you’re at the end of day and you think, ‘Who knows, maybe I could just keep it running overnight. Maybe I’ll get that extra half a percent of accuracy. It doesn’t cost anything and no one’s using the computers’. But actually, there is a cost – there’s a carbon cost.”

What he wants is not to limit research, but to cut computational waste, “to get people to think: ‘Do I really need to do that? Probably not.’

Ten simple rules to make your computing more environmentally sustainable

In September 2021, Lannelongue, Grealey, Inouye and a fourth colleague Alex Bateman published their guide to making computing greener.

1. Calculate the carbon footprint of your work

2. Include the carbon footprint in your cost–benefit analysis

3. Keep, repair, and reuse devices to minimise electronic waste

4. Choose your computing facility

5. Choose your hardware carefully

6. Increase efficiency of the code

7. Be a frugal analyst

8. Releasing a new software? Make its hardware requirements and carbon footprint clear

9. Be aware of unanticipated consequences of improved software efficiency

10. Offset your carbon footprint

Lannelongue L, Grealey J, Bateman A, Inouye M (2021) Ten simple rules to make your computing more environmentally sustainable. PLoS Comput Biol 17(9): e1009324.  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009324

Lannelongue confesses that when they first launched Green Algorithms, he was sceptical as to whether people would use it. In the first few months, it was used only a few dozen times per month – mostly from users in his own lab, the thinks. But since then it has taken off and they get upwards of 300 users a week from around the world.

Even so, he recognises that the tool may be “cumbersome” for some people to use, as it requires them to manually input their data. This is why they are working on Green Algorithms 4HPC (which is already available in beta form on GitHub), which uses data logs from the HPC centres to automatically calculate a project’s carbon footprint.

“Lots of departments are interested in this as it’s a painless way for scientists to implement it. A department can monitor the entire carbon footprint of the work being done there – it’s not only individual scientists, but whole groups that can start saying, ‘OK, let's monitor our carbon footprint and see what's our impact is month on month’.”

He would like to see more transparency from research groups, and this is why his team now routinely calculate their carbon footprint using the Green Algorithms tool and include it at the end of their research papers.

Carbon intensity One of the major factors that influences the carbon footprint of computational work is the ‘carbon intensity’ of the electricity powering it, a measure of how clean it is. Take Australia, which relies heavily on fossil fuels, for example - its carbon intensity is 74 times higher than that of Switzerland, which uses significantly more renewable energy sources.

Carbon intensity (Credit: Loïc Lannelongue)

Carbon intensity (Credit: Loïc Lannelongue)

It’s easy to assume that as algorithms and the computers that power them become ever more efficient, the carbon footprint of computational science will fall, as it did in the biobank example. But this is not necessarily the case, due to the ‘rebound effect’.

“If you make a tool ten times more efficient, scientists will use it 100 times more!"

Dr Loïc Lannelongue

"I mean, it's brilliant, that's how innovation works. But that's why we need to be able to track more precisely that actually what we do results in lower energy – otherwise, we may do all the hard work and then we realise that energy bills are as high as they've ever been.”

Ultimately, he believes, there will have to be an element of personal responsibility when it comes to reducing the carbon footprint of computational science. “People think ‘I don't need to change how I'm acting, all the data centres will soon be powered by wind and solar’. I would love it if it was true – it's just we know it isn't. We need to act now, and then if in the future, we arrive to a point where it doesn't matter anymore, then brilliant, we can resume our guilt-free lives.”

And has his work changed how he himself works?

“Sadly, yes,” he laughs. He was that proverbial kid in a candy story, running multiple analyses just because he could. Now, though, while he’s still continuing with his research and still using machine learning, he is more mindful of the resources he uses. He will stop and ask himself if he really need that extra memory or to run his analysis one more time to be on the safe side. Instead, he will take time to figure out exactly what he needs before beginning the job.

“I know it’s for the best,” he says, before adding wistfully, “but I liked the innocence of not knowing. That was a nice time.”

Published 18 January 2023

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As the climate emergency and cost-of-living crisis focus our minds on how to reduce energy, a group of scientists have highlighted the hidden environmental cost behind some of our major breakthroughs.

Image: Affiliation (schools and institutions): School of Clinical MedicineDepartment of Public Health and Primary CareCambridge ZeroClare HallJesus CollegePeople (our academics and staff): Loic LannelongueSubject (including Spotlight on ... where applicable): Big dataSustainable Earthcarbon dioxidecarbon emissionsStoriesSection: ResearchNews type: NewsSuper Tags: EnvironmentTechnology

Artificial pancreas successfully trialled for use by type 2 diabetes patients

Wed, 11/01/2023 - 15:00

Around 415 million people worldwide are estimated to be living with type 2 diabetes, which costs around $760 billion in annual global health expenditure. According to Diabetes UK, in the UK alone, more than 4.9million people have diabetes, of whom 90% have type 2 diabetes, and this is estimated to cost the NHS £10bn per year.

Type 2 diabetes causes levels of glucose – blood sugar – to become too high. Ordinarily, blood sugar levels are controlled by the release of insulin, but in type 2 diabetes insulin production is disrupted. Over time, this can cause serious problems including eye, kidney and nerve damage and heart disease.

The disease is usually managed through a combination of lifestyle changes – improved diet and more exercise, for example – and medication, with the aim of keeping glucose levels low.

Researchers from the Wellcome-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science at the University of Cambridge have developed an artificial pancreas that can help maintain healthy glucose levels. The device combines an off-the-shelf glucose monitor and insulin pump with an app developed by the team, known as CamAPS HX. This app is run by an algorithm that predicts how much insulin is required to maintain glucose levels in the target range.

The researchers have previously shown that an artificial pancreas run by a similar algorithm is effective for patients living with type 1 diabetes, from adults through to very young children. They have also successfully trialled the device in patients with type 2 diabetes who require kidney dialysis.

Today, in Nature Medicine, the team report the first trial of the device in a wider population living with type 2 diabetes (not requiring kidney dialysis). Unlike the artificial pancreas used for type 1 diabetes, this new version is a fully closed loop system – whereas patients with type 1 diabetes need to tell their artificial pancreas that they are about to eat to allow adjustment of insulin, for example, with this version they can leave the device to function entirely automatically.

The researchers recruited 26 patients from the Wolfson Diabetes and Endocrine Clinic at Addenbrooke’s Hospital, part of Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, and a local group of GP surgeries. Patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups – the first group would trial the artificial pancreas for eight weeks and then switch to the standard therapy of multiple daily insulin injections; the second group would take this control therapy first and then switch to the artificial pancreas after eight weeks.

The team used several measures to assess how effectively the artificial pancreas worked. The first was the proportion of time that patients spent with their glucose levels within a target range of between 3.9 and 10.0mmol/L. On average, patients using the artificial pancreas spent two-thirds (66%) of their time within the target range – double that while on the control (32%).

A second measure was the proportion of time spent with glucose levels above 10.0mmol/L. Over time, high glucose levels raise the risk of potentially serious complications. Patients taking the control therapy spent two-thirds (67%) of their time with high glucose levels – this was halved to 33% when using the artificial pancreas.

Average glucose levels fell – from 12.6mmol/L when taking the control therapy to 9.2mmol/L while using the artificial pancreas.

The app also reduced levels of a molecule known as glycated haemoglobin, or HbA1c. Glycated haemoglobin develops when haemoglobin, a protein within red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body, joins with glucose in the blood, becoming ‘glycated’. By measuring HbA1c, clinicians are able to get an overall picture of what a person's average blood sugar levels have been over a period of weeks or months. For people with diabetes, the higher the HbA1c, the greater the risk of developing diabetes-related complications. After the control therapy, average HbA1c levels were 8.7%, while after using the artificial pancreas they were 7.3%. 

No patients experienced dangerously-low blood sugar levels (hypoglycaemia) during the study. One patient was admitted to hospital while using the artificial pancreas, due to an abscess at the site of the pump cannula.

Dr Charlotte Boughton from the Wellcome-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science at the University of Cambridge, who co-led the study, said: “Many people with type 2 diabetes struggle to manage their blood sugar levels using the currently available treatments, such as insulin injections. The artificial pancreas can provide a safe and effective approach to help them, and the technology is simple to use and can be implemented safely at home.”

Dr Aideen Daly, also from the Wellcome-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, said: “One of the barriers to widespread use of insulin therapy has been concern over the risk of severe ‘hypos’ – dangerously low blood sugar levels. But we found that no patients on our trial experienced these and patients spent very little time with blood sugar levels lower than the target levels.”

Feedback from participants suggested that participants were happy to have their glucose levels controlled automatically by the system, and nine out of ten (89%) reported spending less time managing their diabetes overall. Users highlighted the elimination of the need for injections or fingerprick testing, and increased confidence in managing blood glucose as key benefits. Downsides included increased anxiety about the risk of hypoglycaemia, which the researchers say may reflect increased awareness and monitoring of glucose levels, and practical annoyances with wearing of devices.

The team now plan to carry out a much larger multicentre study to build on their findings and have submitted the device for regulatory approval with a view to making it commercially available for outpatients with type 2 diabetes.

The research was supported by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre.

Reference
Daly, AB, Boughton, CK, et al. Fully automated closed-loop insulin delivery in adults with type 2 diabetes: an open-label, single-centre randomised crossover trial. Nat Med; 11 Jan 2023; DOI: 10.1038/s41591-022-02144-z

Cambridge scientists have successfully trialled an artificial pancreas for use by patients living with type 2 diabetes. The device – powered by an algorithm developed at the University of Cambridge – doubled the amount of time patients were in the target range for glucose compared to standard treatment and halved the time spent experiencing high glucose levels.

type 2 diabetesdiabetesspotlight on future therapeuticsCharlotte BoughtonRoman HovorkaAideen DalyNIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research CentreSchool of Clinical MedicineWellcome-MRC Institute of Metabolic ScienceMany people with type 2 diabetes struggle to manage their blood sugar levels using the currently available treatments, such as insulin injections. The artificial pancreas can provide a safe and effective approach to help themCharlotte BoughtonUniversity of CambridgeCambridge artificial pancreas


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First UK proton beam therapy trial for breast cancer launches

Wed, 04/01/2023 - 09:17

The trial will compare proton beam therapy – which can target radiotherapy beams more precisely – with standard radiotherapy for patients who are at greater risk of long-term heart problems after radiotherapy treatment. It will help to determine whether proton beam therapy can help to deliver adequate doses of radiotherapy to breast tissue, while minimising off-target radiation delivered to the heart.

The trial will enrol 192 people across a planned 22 sites in the UK. People allocated to receive proton beam therapy will be treated at either The Christie NHS Foundation Trust in Manchester, or University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust with accommodation provided for those who are travelling far from home.

The PARABLE trial is being led by researchers at the University of Cambridge, Institute of Cancer Research, London, and the Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and managed by the Cancer Research UK-funded Clinical Trials and Statistics Unit at The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR). It is funded by a National Institute for Health and Care Research and Medical Research Council partnership. The NHS proton centres – UCLH and The Christie – also provided expert guidance on the trial protocol development.

Every year in the UK over 30,000 people with breast cancer receive radiotherapy following surgery as part of their treatment. Standard breast cancer radiotherapy uses high energy x-rays to kill cancer cells. As well as lowering the risk of cancer coming back, radiotherapy can increase survival rates.

Standard breast cancer radiotherapy is very effective for the vast majority of people and the benefits far outweigh small side effects. However, there can be a very small risk of radiotherapy leading to heart problems much later in life (less than one per cent of people treated). The risk of heart problems later in life due to breast radiotherapy maybe be higher than one per cent for a very small group of people. This is usually because their breast tissue and the lymph nodes which require radiotherapy treatment are located close to the heart, and/or because they have an increased underlying risk of developing heart problems later in life.

Professor Charlotte Coles, Professor of Breast Cancer Clinical Oncology at the University of Cambridge, Consultant Oncologist at Addenbrooke’s Hospital and Chief Investigator of the PARABLE trial, said: “Although only a very small group of people are affected by a higher risk of heart problems later in life, it can still be a serious issue. Most patients treated with radiotherapy have decades of healthy life ahead of them and we need to do everything we can to avoid possible future heart problems related to treatment.

“Standard breast radiotherapy is really effective for most people with very few side effects, but there is a small group of patients for whom proton beam therapy may be a better option.”

Proton beam therapy uses charged particles instead of X-rays to target tumours more precisely. Researchers hope it will allow doctors to deliver the required dose of radiotherapy where it’s needed, while minimising the dose of radiation delivered to the heart, and without increasing the risk of early side effects such as skin redness and changes in breast appearance.

The average radiotherapy dose that the heart is likely to receive from the radiotherapy planning scan can be estimated and together with age and other medical history, this information is used to predict the potential small lifetime risk of heart problems.

Professor Judith Bliss, Director of the Cancer Research UK-funded Clinical Trials and Statistics Unit at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, which is managing the PARABLE trial, said: “The PARABLE trial will measure average dose of radiotherapy delivered to the heart to predict long-term heart damage. Using this early predictor will allow us to uncover the potential benefits of using proton beam therapy for long term heart health in years rather than decades.”

People who are predicted to have at least a two per cent or more potential lifetime risk of heart problems from radiotherapy will be invited to take part.  Around 500 out of every 30,000 people who receive radiotherapy for breast cancer fall into this category. People who enter the trial will either receive standard radiotherapy or proton beam therapy.

The trial will measure radiation dose delivered to the heart as an early predictor of possible heart problems, to avoid the need for lengthy follow up for many years before results are available.

People in the trial will also record their experiences using questionnaires so that researchers can assess side-effects including skin reactions, breast pain and swelling, and other symptoms which are particularly important for patients.

Proton beam therapy has been used in other countries to treat breast cancer, but numbers of participants in these trials are small and there have been no reported trials that directly compare proton beam therapy with standard radiotherapy.

The researchers stress the importance of evaluating the benefits of proton beam therapy – which is expensive and only available in certain locations across the UK – thoroughly in a clinical trial.

Dr Anna Kirby, Consultant Clinical Oncologist at the Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Breast Cancer Radiotherapy Team Lead at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, and Radiotherapy Lead for the PARABLE trial, said: “We have already learnt a huge amount about how to optimise and standardise current breast cancer radiotherapy practices alongside optimising proton beam therapy approaches. We hope that the PARABLE trial will help us to further personalise radiotherapy treatments and ensure that people can access the radiotherapy approach that is best for them, regardless of where they live.

Adapted from a press release from The Institute of Cancer Research

Cambridge researchers are jointly leading the first UK trial to test the benefits of proton beam therapy for certain patients with breast cancer.

Cancerbreast cancerspotlight on future therapeuticsCharlotte ColesCancer Research UK (CRUK)National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)Medical Research CouncilAddenbrooke's HospitalCambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation TrustInstitute of Cancer ResearchRoyal Marsden NHS Foundation TrustChristie NHS Foundation TrustUniversity College London Hospitals NHS Foundation TrustSchool of Clinical MedicineCambridge Cancer CentreDepartment of OncologyStandard breast radiotherapy is really effective for most people with very few side effects, but there is a small group of patients for whom proton beam therapy may be a better optionCharlotte ColesFatCamera (Getty Images)An Asian woman in her 60s embraces her mid-30s daughter who is battling cancer - stock photoKim Jones: Patient story

Kim Jones, 44, a school caterer from Ely, was diagnosed with breast cancer in February 2022 after noticing some thickening of the skin and painful twinges in her left breast. Her GP referred her for urgent scans at the breast clinic, and after having mammograms, ultrasounds and biopsies, the diagnosis was confirmed.

Kim was then referred to Addenbrookes Hospital in Cambridge, where she had chemotherapy followed by a mastectomy and lymph node removal. Following acceptance to the PARABLE trial, Kim's proton beam therapy commenced at The Christie on 24 October.

Kim said: "I was told I might be suitable to participate in the PARABLE trial as it would potentially benefit patients with a high risk of long-term heart complications. As I already had an issue with my heart, the trial seemed like a great idea.

"When I was told that I'd been accepted onto the trial, I felt very lucky to have the opportunity to get this treatment. Clinical trials are incredibly important as they are the best way to evaluate which treatments work the best."

"The proton beam therapy centre at The Christie is bright and spacious and feels very relaxing. My experience of being treated at The Christie so far has been superb. The staff are wonderful and seem to have thought of everything. Their care is second to none, and I feel completely safe in their hands."

Following the proton beam therapy, Kim will have further chemotherapy and hormone therapy at Addenbrookes.

Kim is married to Mark, and they have two boys, Dylan, age 14, and Elwood, age 11. She enjoys walking, reading, live music and spending time with her family.


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Females perform better than males on a ‘theory of mind’ test across 57 countries

Mon, 26/12/2022 - 21:00

Researchers found that females, on average, score higher than males on the widely used ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ Test, which measures ‘theory of mind’ (also known as ‘cognitive empathy’). This finding was observed across all ages and most countries.

The reseach, published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), is the largest study of theory of mind to date.

A fundamental part of human social interaction and communication involves putting ourselves in other people’s shoes, to imagine another person’s thoughts and feelings. This is known as ‘theory of mind’ or ‘cognitive empathy’.

For decades, researchers have studied the development of theory of mind, from infancy to old age. One of the most widely used tests with which to study theory of mind is the ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ Test (or Eyes Test, for short), which asks participants to pick which word best describes what the person in the photo is thinking or feeling, just by viewing photos of the eye region of the face.

The Eyes Test was first developed in 1997 by Professor Sir Simon Baron-Cohen and his research team at Cambridge, and was revised in 2001, and has become a well-established assessment of theory of mind. It is listed as one of two recommended tests for measuring individual differences in ‘Understanding Mental States’ by the National Institute of Mental Health in the US.

Over the decades, many independent research studies have found that females on average score higher than males on theory of mind tests. However, most of these studies were limited to relatively small samples, without much diversity in terms of geography, culture, and/or age. To address these shortcomings, a team of multidisciplinary researchers led by Cambridge University and with collaborators in Bar-Ilan, Harvard, Washington, and Haifa Universities, as well as IMT Lucca, has merged large samples from different online platforms to analyse data from 305,726 participants across 57 countries.

The results showed that across the 57 countries, females on average scored significantly higher than males (in 36 countries), or similar to males (in 21 countries), on the Eyes Test. Importantly, there was no country where males on average scored significantly higher than females on the Eyes Test. The on-average sex difference was seen across the lifespan, from 16 to 70 years of age. The team also confirmed this on-average sex difference in three independent datasets and on non-English versions of the Eyes Test, spanning eight languages.

Dr David M. Greenberg, the lead scientist on the study, a Zuckerman Scholar at Bar-Ilan and Honorary Research Associate at Cambridge, said: “Our results provide some of the first evidence that the well-known phenomenon – that females are on average more empathic than males – is present in wide range of countries across the globe. It’s only by using very large data sets that we can say this with confidence.”

Although this study cannot discern the cause of this on-average sex difference, the authors discuss on the basis of prior research that this may be the result of both biological and social factors.

Professor Sir Simon Baron-Cohen, Director of the Autism Research Centre at Cambridge University, and senior author on the study, said: “Studies of on-average sex differences say nothing about an individual’s mind or aptitudes, since an individual may be typical or atypical for their sex. The Eyes Test reveals that many individuals struggle to read facial expressions, for a variety of reasons. Support should be available for those who seek it.”

The researchers also showed that, in addition to sex, ‘D-scores’ (the difference between a person’s drive to systemize and their drive to empathize) are a significant negative predictor of scores on the Eyes Test. This adds to an earlier study led by Greenberg in 2018 of over 650,000 participants, also published in PNAS, which found that D-scores accounted for 19 times more of the variance in autistic traits than did sex or indeed any other demographic variable. Thus, D-scores appear to play a more important role than sex in aspects of human cognition.

Dr Carrie Allison, Director of Applied Research at the Autism Research Centre at Cambridge University, and a member of the team, said: “This study clearly demonstrates a largely consistent sex difference across countries, languages, and ages. This raises new questions for future research about the social and biological factors that may contribute to the observed on-average sex difference in cognitive empathy.”

Take the ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ Test

Reference
Greenberg, D. M., Warrier, V., Abu-Akel, A., Allison, C., Gajos, K. Z., Reinecke, K., Rentfrow, P. J., Radecki, M. A., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2022). Sex and age differences in ‘theory of mind’ across 57 countries using the English version of the ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ Test. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; 26 Dec 2022; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022385119

Females, on average, are better than males at putting themselves in others’ shoes and imagining what the other person is thinking or feeling, suggests a new study of over 300,000 people in 57 countries.

Simon Baron-CohenDavid GreenbergBar-Ilan UniversitySchool of Clinical MedicineDepartment of PsychiatryAutism Research CentreTrinity CollegeOur results provide some of the first evidence that the well-known phenomenon – that females are on average more empathic than males – is present in wide range of countries across the globeDavid GreenbergYuri Levin (Unsplash)Two women hugging


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Paying farmers to create woodland and wetland is the most cost-effective way to hit UK environment targets

Tue, 20/12/2022 - 09:58

Incentivising farmers to restore some land as habitats for nature could deliver UK climate and biodiversity targets at half the taxpayer cost of integrating nature into land managed for food production, according to a new study published today in the British Ecological Society journal People and Nature.

The research, led by the universities of Cambridge, Leeds and Glasgow, provides the first evidence for the taxpayer savings offered by focusing food production in certain areas to allow the creation of new woods, wetland and scrub habitats on some of the land currently used for farming.

The study suggests that this “land sparing” approach would cost just 48% of the funds required to achieve the same outcomes for biodiversity and the climate through an approach known as “land sharing”, where conservation measures get mixed into farming by adding hedgerows to fields, reducing pesticides, and so on – all of which lowers food yield.

Additionally, researchers say that trying to share land with nature through making farming more wildlife-friendly would see the UK lose 30% more of its food production capacity than if farmers are encouraged to spare portions of land entirely for creating semi-natural habitats.

The UK government has legally binding commitments to reverse nature declines by 2030 and reach net zero carbon by 2050. Sparing land for habitats could hit these targets at half the cost of trying to farm on land shared with nature, say researchers.

“Currently, only a fraction of the £3.2 billion of public money annually paid to farmers goes on biodiversity and climate mitigation, some £600m a year,” said Lydia Collas, who led the study as part of her PhD at Cambridge University’s Department of Zoology.

“Almost all this fraction of funding supports land-sharing approaches that may do little to benefit species or sequester carbon, but do typically reduce food yields. Until now there has been no research on whether this is the most cost-effective solution to delivering environmental targets.”

Cambridge’s Prof Andrew Balmford, senior author of the study, said: “Greater incentives for farmers to create woodlands and wetlands will deliver for wild species and climate mitigation at half the cost to the taxpayer of the land-sharing approach that currently receives ten times more public funding.”

The researchers say their findings – presented at the British Ecological Society’s annual meeting by study co-author Prof Nick Hanley, an environmental economist from the University of Glasgow – should inform the current Brexit-prompted rethink of England’s new Environmental Land Management Scheme (ELMs).

The Landscape Recovery strand of the ELM is set to receive under 1% of the overall budget next year – a dramatic underspend considering the economic, environmental and food security benefits of a habitat creation approach, argue the scientists.

They say that the revamped Countryside Stewardship Scheme would also deliver far better value for money if it supports farmers to create habitats for nature instead of repeating the largely “wildlife-friendly” approach of the scheme in its current form. 

“If a two-fold cost saving was identified in other government policy areas, such as health, there would be an outcry,” said Collas, “particularly in the face of the worst recession in a generation.”

The researchers conducted a choice experiment study with 118 farmers responsible for 1.7% of all England’s arable land, asking them to estimate the payments they would require to implement land-sharing practices or habitat-creating “sparing” approaches on their land.

Farmers chose from a variety of agricultural approaches, nature interventions and, crucially, payment rates. The study also considered the government's costs of administering and monitoring these schemes.

The team used three bird species – yellowhammers, bullfinches and lapwings – as a proxy for effects on biodiversity, as well a range of ways farmers could help slow climate change, such as woodland and hedgerow creation.

On average, farmers in the experiment accepted lower payments per hectare for land sharing practices. However, habitat creation schemes deliver far greater environmental outcomes per hectare, so creating woodlands, wetlands and scrublands would deliver the same overall biodiversity and climate mitigation benefits at half the cost to the taxpayer.

“We found that enough farmers are willing to substantially change their business to benefit from payments for public goods in the form of habitats, provided the government rewards them properly for doing so,” said Balmford.

Collas, now a now a Policy Analyst at Green Alliance, added: “Existing evidence already shows that semi-natural habitats deliver far more biodiversity and climate mitigation per unit area, and creating them has far less impact on food production than meeting targets through land sharing.

“This evidence is dismissed when thinking about agricultural policy in the UK because of an untested assumption that farmers are unwilling to create natural habitat. We now have evidence showing this assumption is wrong.”

Study of farmer preferences shows that turning whole areas of farmland into habitats comes with half the price tag of integrating nature into productive farmland, if biodiversity and carbon targets are to be met.

farmingbiodiversityconservationAndrew BalmfordLydia CollasDepartment of ZoologyCambridge Conservation InitiativeSchool of the Biological SciencesSemi-natural habitats deliver far more biodiversity and climate mitigation per unit areaLydia CollasGetty imagesDrone view of agricultural field - a tractor is baling hay next to woodland


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Technique for tracking resistant cancer cells could lead to new treatments for relapsing breast cancer patients

Mon, 19/12/2022 - 14:50

Tumours are complex entities made up of many types of cells, including cancer cells and normal cells. But even within a single tumour there are a diverse range of cancer cells – and this is one reason why standard therapies fail.

When a tumour is treated with anti-cancer drugs, cancer cells that are susceptible to the drug die, the tumour shrinks and the therapy appears to be successful. But in reality, a small number of cancer cells in the tumour may be able to survive the treatment and regrow, often more persistently, causing a relapse.

In a study published in eLife, scientists from Professor Greg Hannon’s IMAXT lab at the Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute at the University of Cambridge have developed a new technique for identifying the different types of cells in a tumour. Their method – developed in mouse tumours – allows them to track the cells during treatment, seeing which types of cell die and which survive.

The IMAXT team was previously awarded £20 million by Cancer Grand Challenges, funded by Cancer Research UK.

Dr Kirsty Sawicka from the Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute said: “Tumours are incredibly complex, made up of many different types of tumour cells that have acquired genetic mutations as they evolve and replicate – and some of these cells are able to evade standard cancer treatments. Until now, it hasn’t been possible to work out which these cells are and what makes them special, but our technique means that we can now do just that.”

The team used viruses to tag different types of breast cancer cells with a unique genetic ‘barcode’. They then formed tumours from these cells in mice and treated them with the same drugs used to treat patients with breast cancer.

By scanning the barcodes using recently developed single cell sequencing technologies – which look for those genes that are turned on or off in the cell – they were able to identify the different types of cancer cells, how many of those cells there are and what their characteristics are – and which types of cancer cells are not killed effectively by standard treatments.

The team noticed that the cells that evade chemotherapy are those that have a greater reliance on asparagine, an amino acid that cells use to protect themselves from damage. By then administering L-asparaginase – a drug currently used to treat patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, which breaks down asparagine – they were able to specifically target and kill these tumour cells.

Dr Ian Cannell from the Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute said: “Offering some kind of ‘combination therapy’ that adds asparaginase to the standard treatment could be a way of further shrinking tumours in breast cancer patients and reducing their risk of relapse.

“Although we see evidence that these evasive tumour cells are increased in patients after chemotherapy, so far, we’ve only shown that we can target them in mice, so there’s still a long way to go before it leads to a treatment for patients. Before we can do that we need to find the best way of administering the drugs – would we give the drugs together, for example, or offer the standard treatment and then asparaginase.”

David Scott, Director of Cancer Grand Challenges, Cancer Research UK, said: “Incredible innovations like these are exactly why Cancer Grand Challenges was created. Ambitious ideas from world class scientists – like tracking how individual cells respond to cancer treatments – are what will give us the much needed insights to bring us the more effective cancer treatments of tomorrow and make real differences to patients.”

Reference
Wild, SA Cannell, IG et al. Clonal transcriptomics identifies mechanisms of chemoresistance and empowers rational design of combination therapies. eLife; 16 Dec 2022; DOI: 10.7554/eLife.80981

Cambridge scientists have managed to identify and kill those breast cancer cells that evade standard treatments in a study in mice. The approach is a step towards the development of new treatments to prevent relapse in patients.

Cancerbreast canceranimal researchIan CannellKirsty SawickaCancer Research UK (CRUK)School of Clinical MedicineCancer Research UK Cambridge InstituteCambridge Cancer CentreTumours are incredibly complex, made up of many different types of tumour cells – and some of these cells are able to evade standard cancer treatmentsKirsty SawickaAnne Weston - Francis Crick InstituteBreast cancer cells


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‘Cocktail’ vaccines could offer increased protection against future COVID-19 variants of concern

Wed, 14/12/2022 - 16:40

In research published in Nature Communications, scientists show that the omicron variant of the virus is immunologically distinct from other variants such as the vaccine variant and the alpha and delta variants – that is, exposure to it has a different effect on the neutralising antibody response and hence protection to other variants. But also, sub-variants of omicron are themselves distinct from each other. Their research further suggests that a combination of infection plus vaccination could provide increased protection against future variants.

Since SARS-CoV-2 was first identified in 2020, new variants of the virus have emerged as its genetic code evolves. Some of these variants threaten to spread faster, be more virulent or evade the protection of the vaccine – these are known as ‘variants of concern’.

Antonia Netzl, a PhD student at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, together with colleagues at Cambridge and Innsbruck, analysed data on people’s immune responses to different variants and vaccinations. They used these to create ‘antigenic maps’ and ‘antibody landscapes’ to explore the differences between variants.

A more recent variant of concern is the omicron variant, but since its emergence in December 2021 several sub-lineages have evolved, including BA.1, BA.2, BA.4, BA.5, and BA.2.12.1. Of these, BA.5 became the dominant variant in many countries earlier this year, though new dominant variants have subsequently supplanted it.

Netzl and colleagues found, using their maps, that not only was omicron immunologically distinct from alpha and delta, but its sub-variants BA.1, BA.2 and BA.5 were also distinct from each other. The antibody landscapes, an illustration of people’s immune profile, allowed the researchers to see how vaccination and/or infection with another variant increased virus neutralisation against other viruses.

Netzl, a Gates Cambridge Scholar, said: “We found that people who had been exposed to BA.1 were better protected against BA.2, but the reverse wasn’t true.

“But the good news was that we also found that two distinct exposures – for example, vaccination plus infection with a different variant – increased antibody levels against all variants. So, people who had been vaccinated and then infected with delta, for example, were better protected against omicron than those who had only been vaccinated or infected and not both.”

Netzl says this suggests that an update of the vaccine variant will be beneficial for increasing antibody levels and thereby offering some protection against all currently circulating variants as well as yet-unknown variants.

“Our work suggests that an update of the vaccine variant will be beneficial for increasing antibody levels and thereby protection against all currently circulating variants. The bivalent vaccines, which contain the original prototype variant and an omicron variant in a single vaccine dose, could provide this increased protection.”

The findings are supported by clinical trials and have already been put into practice with the roll-out of the bivalent Prototype+omicron BA.4/5 and Prototype+omicron BA.1 vaccines. 

Although infection by multiple different variants gives the unvaccinated protection too, Netzl points out that vaccinations offer effective protection and reduce the severity of infection.

“People should still make sure they get themselves vaccinated, even if they have already had COVID once. Vaccination is important for boosting our immune response and thereby reducing the risk of infection and symptom severity.”

Netzl said the research, alongside the real-world clinical trials, gives a strong basis to the investigations in vaccine development and design.

This research was carried out at the University of Cambridge and the Janine Kimpel Group at the University of Innsbruck. The co-lead authors were Antonia Netzl and Annika Rössler.

Reference
Rössler, A, Netzl, A, et al. BA.2 and BA.5 omicron differ immunologically from both BA.1 omicron and pre-omicron variants. Nat Comm; 13 Dec 2022; DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-35312-3

COVID-19 vaccinations that combine two or more distinct variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus could offer protection against both current and future ‘variants of concern’, say scientists at the University of Cambridge and Medical University of Innsbruck.

CoronavirusCOVID-19Infectious diseasesAntonia NetzlMedical University of InnsbruckSchool of the Biological SciencesDepartment of ZoologyCambridge Infectious DiseasesGates CambridgeTrinity HallOur work suggests that an update of the vaccine variant will be beneficial for increasing antibody levels and thereby protection against all currently circulating variantsAntonia NetzlSamuelFrancisJohnsonCoronavirus


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Prostate cancer risk prediction algorithm could help target testing at men at greatest risk

Fri, 09/12/2022 - 21:00

CanRisk-Prostate, developed by researchers at the University of Cambridge and The Institute of Cancer Research, London, will be incorporated into the group’s CanRisk web tool, which has now recorded almost 1.2 million risk predictions. The free tool is already used by healthcare professionals worldwide to help predict the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers.

Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men. According to Cancer Research UK, over 52,000 men are diagnosed with the disease each year and there are more than 12,000 deaths. Over three-quarters (78%) of men diagnosed with prostate cancer survive for over ten years, but this proportion has barely changed over the past decade in the UK.

Testing for prostate cancer involves a blood test that looks for a protein known as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) that is made only by the prostate gland; however, it is not always accurate. According to the NHS website, around three in four men with a raised PSA level will not have cancer. Further tests, such as tissue biopsies or MRI scans, are therefore required to confirm a diagnosis.

Professor Antonis Antoniou from the Department of Public Health and Primary Care at the University of Cambridge said: “Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK, but population-wide screening based on PSA isn’t an option: these tests are often falsely positive, which means that many men would then be biopsied unnecessarily. Also, many prostate tumours identified by PSA tests are slow-growing and would not have been life-threatening. The treatment of these tumours may do more harm than good.

“What we need is a way of identifying those men who are at greatest risk, allowing us to target screening and diagnostic tests where they are most needed, while also reducing the harms for those men who have low risk of the disease. This is what CanRisk-Prostate aims to do. For the first time, it combines information on the genetic makeup and prostate cancer family history, the main risk factors for the disease, to provide personalised cancer risks.”

Prostate cancer is one of the most genetically determined of common cancers. Inherited faulty versions of the BRCA2, HOXB13 and possibly BRCA1 genes are associated with moderate-to-high risk of prostate cancer, though such faults are rare in the population. In addition, there are several hundred more common genetic variants that each confer a lower risk, but in aggregate they act like ‘volume control’ that moderate or increase the prostate cancer risk.

Writing in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, the researchers – supported by Cancer Research UK – describe the development of the first comprehensive prostate cancer model using genetic and cancer family history data from almost 17,000 families affected by prostate cancer. It uses data on rare genetic faults in moderate-to-high-risk genes and a risk score based on 268 common low-risk variants, together with detailed cancer family history, to predict the future risks.

One in six men (16%) will develop prostate cancer by the time they are 85 years old. Using the model, the team found that the predicted risk was higher for men who had a father diagnosed with prostate cancer – 27% if the father was diagnosed at an older age (80 years) but as high as 42% if the father was diagnosed at a young age (50 years).

The risks were considerably higher for men with genetic faults. For example, 54% of men who carry an alteration in the BRCA2 gene would develop prostate cancer – however, among men with BRCA2 gene faults, the risks were substantially lower if they also had a small number of the low-risk variants, but much higher if they also had a large number of the low-risk variants.

In practice, say the researchers, clinicians will be able to use any combination of cancer family history, rare and common genetic variants to provide a personalised risk.

To validate their model, the team ran the risk model on an independent cohort of over 170,000 men recruited to UK Biobank, a biomedical database and research resource containing anonymised genetic, lifestyle and health information from half a million UK participants. All of these men were free from prostate cancer when they were recruited to the study, but more than 7,600 developed prostate cancer within the subsequent ten years.

When validating their model, the researchers found that 86% of the UK Biobank participants who developed cancer were in the half of men with the highest predicted risks, which suggests that it may be possible to target screening and diagnostic tests to the subgroup of the population at highest risk, among whom the majority of the cancers will occur.  

Dr Tommy Nyberg from the MRC Biostatistics Unit at Cambridge said: “We’ve created the most comprehensive tool to date for predicting a man’s risk of developing prostate cancer. We hope this will help clinicians and genetic counsellors assess their clients’ risk and provide the appropriate follow-up.

“Over the next 12 months, we aim to build this tool into the widely used CanRisk tool, which will facilitate the risk-based clinical management of men seen in family cancer clinics and enable risk-adapted early detection approaches to the population at large.”

Professor Ros Eeles from The Institute of Cancer Research, London and co-author on the study said: “This is an important step forward as it will enable clinicians to have conversations with men about their individual risk of prostate cancer based on the most accurate computer model to date. This will help them in making decisions about screening.”

So far, the data used to develop CanRisk-Prostate has been from men of European ancestry. The team hope to be able to include data from men of other ethnicities as further research is undertaken.

The University of Cambridge recently launched the Early Cancer Institute with the aim of detecting cancer early enough to cure it. It is the first physical institute in the UK dedicated to early cancer. A new Cambridge Cancer Research Hospital is also planned for the near future, bringing together clinical and research expertise in a new, world-class hospital, designed in partnership with patients.

There is also an Early Detection and Diagnosis centre at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust where a prostate risk clinic has been established to translate these findings into targeted screening programmes.

The research was supported by the Cancer Research UK-funded CanRisk programme. Additional support for CanRisk-Prostate was provided by Prostate Cancer UK, The Institute of Cancer Research, Everyman Campaign, National Cancer Research Network UK, National Cancer Research Institute, NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre and the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust.

Reference
Nyberg, T et al. CanRisk-Prostate: a comprehensive, externally validated risk model for the prediction of future prostate cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology; 9 Dec 2022; DOI: 10.1200/JCO.22.01453

Cambridge scientists have created a comprehensive tool for predicting an individual’s risk of developing prostate cancer, which they say could help ensure that those men at greatest risk will receive the appropriate testing while reducing unnecessary – and potentially invasive – testing for those at very low risk.

Cancerprostate cancerAntonis AntoniouTommy NybergCancer Research UK (CRUK)Institute of Cancer ResearchSchool of Clinical MedicineDepartment of Public Health and Primary CareMedical Research Council (MRC) Biostatistics UnitCambridge Cancer CentreWhat we need is a way of identifying those men who are at greatest risk, allowing us to target screening and diagnostic tests where they are most needed, while also reducing the harms for those men who have low risk of the disease. This is what CanRisk-Prostate aims to doAntonis AntoniouKampus ProductionMiddle aged couple


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Protecting Europe’s seabirds

Thu, 08/12/2022 - 16:19

Numerous European seabirds are at risk from climate change, according to new research led by ZSL (The Zoological Society of London) in collaboration with the University of Cambridge.

Researchers have published a first-of-its-kind conservation guide to protecting the 47 species that breed along the Atlantic coastline; offering hope for the future of these important marine birds, by assessing their species-specific needs and laying out the actions needed to preserve each one.

ZSL Institute of Zoology post-doctoral fellow, Henry Häkkinen, who led the production of the guidelines, said: “It’s unthinkable that the Atlantic puffin, one of Europe’s most treasured seabirds, could disappear from our shores by the end of the century – alongside other important marine bird species.

“Seabirds are one of the most threatened groups of birds in the world, with many already seeing rapid global declines due to the impacts of human activity and climate change, including changes to food availability, extreme weather conditions and the loss of breeding grounds.

“These birds face double the challenges as they breed on land but rely on the sea for survival; by living across these two worlds, they are essential to both ecosystems and give us a glimpse into the health of wildlife in otherwise hard-to-monitor areas of the ocean – meaning their loss would impact countless other species and their conservation.”

The two-year project to create the guidelines gathered evidence from more than 80 conservationists and policymakers across 15 European countries, alongside carefully collated information available from scientific papers across 10 different languages.

The pioneering European collaboration is the first to co-develop guidelines in this way, with the team hoping to scale up the project to map the risks to seabirds on a global scale.  

“Seabirds are migratory, flying vast distances overseas and oceans, and so to truly enhance conservation efforts we need to understand how climate change is altering their environment across their entire range. 

“It’s essential to develop strong conservation measures to protect these birds against the climate crisis, but this requires species-specific understanding of the threats that they face. For some birds, like puffins, we have a strong grasp of how climate change impacts them, but for many species, such as eider ducks and ivory gulls, this knowledge is severely lacking. These gaps need to be urgently addressed for us to help these birds to survive.” 

Project lead, ZSL Senior Research Fellow Dr Nathalie Pettorelli added: “The challenges posed by rapid changes in climatic conditions require efficient coordination between science, policy and advocacy to ensure key questions are given research priority and effective conservation actions can be deployed in areas where they are most needed. These seabird conservation guidelines – and the process behind them – provide a vital and transferable framework that can help align efforts to prioritise and implement evidence-based climate change adaptation practices to safeguard a future for the species most at risk. 

“The time to act is now if we are to buffer species from the impacts of climate change.”  

The guidelines will be made available to all conservationists working with seabirds across Europe.

Article adapted from a press release by ZSL.

New conservation guide launched to protect European seabirds at risk from climate change 

Sustainable EarthClimate changebiodiversitySilviu PetrovanBill SutherlandNigel TaylorThe Zoological Society of LondonDepartment of ZoologySchool of Biological SciencesSchool of the Biological SciencesThe time to act is now if we are to buffer species from the impacts of climate changeNathalie PettorelliSeppo HäkkinenA group of puffins on a cliff at the Farne Islands by Seppo Häkkinen


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The future of farming: from eating insects to urban agriculture 

Wed, 07/12/2022 - 12:52
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'script', document); //--> Shorthand Story Body:  LinkedInTwitterFacebook The future of farming: from eating insects to urban agriculture 

The Entrepreneurship Centre at Cambridge Judge Business School is supporting new ventures to improve sustainability in agriculture to meet the demands of a growing global population. 

By Louise Loxley
Published 7 December 2022

The issue of how to feed a growing population, and do it sustainably, is a crucial issue for the 21st century and has been brought more sharply into focus by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, a key agricultural producer. 

The issue was high on the agenda at the recent United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP27) in Egypt, and food insecurity is a topic of gatherings around the world including this month’s G20 summit of world leaders in Indonesia. According to data compiled by the UN, by 2050 we will need to produce 60% more food to feed a world population of 9.3 billion. At the same time, there is a need to encourage industrial-scale farmers to be far more environmentally aware by providing the right incentives and penalties where necessary.

At Cambridge Judge Business School (CJBS), the Entrepreneurship Centre and Cambridge Centre for Social Innovation support a number of ventures which aim to foster sustainable agriculture practices, and also offer more far-reaching alternatives to traditional food supplies.

The rise of “precision agriculture”

One of the most important fields is precision agriculture, the science of improving crop yields and assisting management decisions using the latest technology.

Outfield Technologies is targeted at high value fruit farming, primarily apples and pears. The firm currently has customers in the UK, US, Europe, and South Africa. It works by farmers buying their own drone, and then the Outfield software devises flight plans over the orchards and processes the images taken by drones. The venture was on the Accelerate Cambridge programme at the CJBS Entrepreneurship Centre for two years, developing the idea and helping them find their market fit.    

“We believe the answer is more data,” said Outfield co-founder Oli Hilbourne. “The future is not seeing the farm as a block, but seeing it on a far more granular, plant-by-plant level.”  

By counting the fruit on branches and measuring trees, farmers can see where to apply fertiliser with greater precision, reducing usage and improving soil sustainability. Outfield’s software can also recommend where to start harvesting to reduce waste and labour costs. The rising cost of labour globally has become a huge issue within the agricultural sector, for reasons including Brexit, the shortage of backpackers (some of whom become seasonal workers) in New Zealand due to Covid, and the rise of the minimum wage in South Africa.  

The data gathered by drones can also predict yields. ‘Priming’ the supply chain ensures a smoother journey from orchard to the fruit bowl in your home. When an apple is picked, it is stored in a refrigerated environment for up to six months before being transported to a pack house to be washed, sorted, and packaged, before being moved to a distribution centre and finally appearing on supermarket shelves. The chain relies heavily on transportation, but by predicting yields, Outfield aims to reduce waste as distributors can anticipate fruit levels and reduce greenhouse gases caused by refrigerated storage.  

The firm believes there is a willingness to adopt more sustainable methods. “The agricultural industry needs more investment to facilitate change,” said Hilbourne. “More money for better infrastructure including rural broadband, 5G, education and more investment in start-ups.”  

Insects: your new favourite ingredient?  

“Our mission is to take edible insects mainstream,” said Yum Bug co-founder Leo Taylor. The company sells crickets – both minced and roasted – to whip up something a bit different in the kitchen. The company’s website includes an endorsement from celebrity chef Prue Leith, a judge on The Great British Bake Off, for the product’s “delicious crunch”. 

The focus, however, is getting on restaurant menus because it ties into the firm’s ethos of introducing people to eating insects. The business plan reflects experience honed from running a market stall on London’s Brick Lane, through to the business mentoring provided by Cambridge Social Ventures, part of the Cambridge Centre for Social Innovation at CJBS. Yum Bug regularly supplies five restaurants, with dishes featuring insects including cricket mince tapas, nachos, and Asian cuisine. “Small sharable dishes work best,” said Taylor. “By eating loaded fries or tapas, people aren’t having to commit to a meal, but they are trying the product, and hopefully coming back for more.” 

Insects are an incredible superfood – proportionally containing more protein than beef, and more potassium than bananas – while requiring a fraction of the space, water, and feed than traditional livestock. They are also already eaten regularly in over 80% of countries around the world.

“Climate change is the issue,” said Taylor. “It’s mission-critical for the survival of humanity. The food system is a huge part of it. 80% plus of deforestation in the Amazon is now specifically beef rearing. Insects provide one of a spectrum of solutions that need to be implemented to create some more equilibrium with our environment.” 

Food waste – could maggots hold the answer?

If you find eating insects hard to digest, they appear lower down in the food chain in another venture – aimed at the fight against food waste. Better Origin is a CJBS-backed company hoping to make a dent in the world’s food waste mountain – the UN estimates 17% of global food production is currently thrown away.

Better Origin feeds food waste from British supermarket Morrisons to black soldier fly larvae, and the larvae are then fed to hens on the supermarket’s egg laying farms. This effectively turns waste into feed. By replacing the hen’s usual soya feed, which is a huge contributor to rainforest loss, it’s also reducing emissions. 

“Everyone has heard of planting trees, but planting trees does nothing for someone producing food waste,” said co-founder Miha Pipan. “What we’re doing is something quite unique and quite adaptable. It has a really important role in reinforcing how food chains work and making them more reliable.” 

The company was supported by Accelerate Cambridge, and now supplies 10 insect mini-farms to Morrisons, dealing with 3000 tonnes of food waste per year, saving 2810 tonnes of CO₂e emissions annually - an equivalent, they claim, to taking over 600 cars off the road.

The firm is constrained by regulations at this stage as only certain foodstuffs are legal to feed to larvae – currently fruit, vegetables and bakery waste – but they are working with regulators to unlock more sources. 

Cultivating cells rather than rearing cattle

Cultured meat is made by growing cells under controlled conditions in a bioreactor. The United Nations says it’s not feasible to support a growing, global population of 9 billion on an animal protein-rich diet by 2050. There is currently no commercial-scale production process for cultured meat, and there are high financial and research barriers to entry. 

But Animal Alternative Technologies are focused on producing scalable production systems for any food producers to make their own cultured meat. 

The team behind the venture joined Accelerate Cambridge at CJBS only a few months after starting the company. “CJBS turned us from scientists with dreams to entrepreneurs with a plan,” said co-founder Clarisse Beurrier. “Humans have been intensifying livestock meat production for over 10,000 years and we are reaching its limits. Cellular agriculture helps us push beyond these limits. For example, whereas a chicken needs about nine calories to produce one calorie of meat, you only need two calories of input when you feed the cells directly.” 

The firm aims to reduce the carbon footprint of animal farming by more than half, eliminate the risks of infectious diseases like swine flu and help to curb antibiotic resistance. Production volume can also be easily adjusted, helping address food security issues.

While the product is still a few years away from being available, consumer research in China, one of the countries driving demand for meat, suggests people are willing to purchase lab-grown alternatives, even if priced at a premium.  

Urban farming: the future of agriculture?  

With cellular agriculture in its infancy, urban agriculture is moving to the fore as the population of cities is predicted to explode. While vertical farming of plants in limited space has been around for some time, new research looking into the ‘vertical farming of seafood’ is being developed by CJBS affiliate and Harding Scholar, Broderick House.

As part of his PhD project at Cambridge’s Department of Zoology, House is looking at farming bivalves – mussels, oysters, and clams, specifically – within city boundaries. “In terms of sustainable food options, and from a food security standpoint, being able to expand bivalve farming from the coast and into cities means you have a safe environment to produce a highly nutritious and micronutrient-rich source of food,” he said. “As the levels of acidification and microplastics rise in our oceans, and more flooding washes increasing amounts of heavy metals and waste into the seas, it is an opportunity for the bivalve industry to be proactive in realising a promising solution to global food security and the alleviation of micronutrient deficiency.”

One of the biggest challenges, of course, is water consumption. The artificial aquaculture environment cannot fully compare to farming in the ocean, but by using advanced recirculating aquaculture systems, water use can be reduced, as only 10% of the water in the tank must be changed every day: “If you’re comparing it to traditional agricultural livestock – cows, pork, chicken, or even other forms of protein such as soya, that are farmed in fields, it uses much less water, and provides competing levels of protein,” said House.

While sustainability would, at first glance, need to be offset by building infrastructure to farm bivalves inland, there is the potential to repurpose existing buildings which would help decrease carbon emissions from transportation. House points out that the biggest carbon footprint in aquaculture is the feed for the livestock, and he is trying, in collaboration with Cambridge’s Algal Innovation Centre, to develop more sustainable options such as photosynthetic algae.

To help translate his research into the business world, House has been supported by the EnterpriseTECH and EnterpriseTECH STAR programmes at the CJBS Entrepreneurship Centre. “CJBS has been a fantastic resource and community,” he said. “The business ecosystem here has provided important tools to engage with industry leaders and parliament members in a constructive and informed way to help ensure my PhD research has a positive role in shaping the future of global food security.”

Cambridge Judge Dean: agricultural changes would benefit society

“The agricultural sector, when it comes to producing food and distributing it mainly to the cities, is actually the single most important source of carbon emissions in the world,” said Professor Mauro Guillén, Dean of Cambridge Judge Business School. 

 “Agriculture is a part of the economy that right now we think of as being relatively small, and it is in terms of employment and its contribution to GDP, at least in developed countries. But in most of the world that’s still developing, agriculture is a very large sector of the economy in terms of employment and it’s also one that is not very productive. 

“We could vastly improve, for example, our efficiency in the use of water, in the use of fertilisers, in the use of so many other things. In Europe and the United States, we waste about 30% of the food that reaches our table. We could also do another very important thing when it comes to food production, which is to try to produce the food closer to where the consumer is, to reduce transportation costs. Urban agriculture is a great idea because not only are you cutting transportation costs, in addition, you’re growing plants, and you’re helping recycle carbon emissions.”

Originally published on the CJBS website

Design by Sarah Collins

All images via Getty Images

The text in this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

TopBuilt with Shorthand Summary: 

The Entrepreneurship Centre at Cambridge Judge Business School is supporting new ventures to improve sustainability in agriculture to meet the demands of a growing global population.  

Image: Affiliation (schools and institutions): Cambridge Judge Business SchoolSchool of TechnologyDepartment of ZoologySchool of the Biological SciencesPeople (our academics and staff): Mauro GuillénBroderick HouseSubject (including Spotlight on ... where applicable): spin-outInnovationbusinessagricultureSustainable agriculturefarmingClimate changeStoriesSection: ResearchSuper Tags: EnvironmentBusiness

The future of farming: from eating insects to urban agriculture 

Wed, 07/12/2022 - 12:50
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'script', document); //--> Shorthand Story Body:  LinkedInTwitterFacebook The future of farming: from eating insects to urban agriculture 

The Entrepreneurship Centre at Cambridge Judge Business School is supporting new ventures to improve sustainability in agriculture to meet the demands of a growing global population. 

By Louise Loxley
Published 7 December 2022

The issue of how to feed a growing population, and do it sustainably, is a crucial issue for the 21st century and has been brought more sharply into focus by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, a key agricultural producer. 

The issue was high on the agenda at the recent United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP27) in Egypt, and food insecurity is a topic of gatherings around the world including this month’s G20 summit of world leaders in Indonesia. According to data compiled by the UN, by 2050 we will need to produce 60% more food to feed a world population of 9.3 billion. At the same time, there is a need to encourage industrial-scale farmers to be far more environmentally aware by providing the right incentives and penalties where necessary.

At Cambridge Judge Business School (CJBS), the Entrepreneurship Centre and Cambridge Centre for Social Innovation support a number of ventures which aim to foster sustainable agriculture practices, and also offer more far-reaching alternatives to traditional food supplies.

The rise of “precision agriculture”

One of the most important fields is precision agriculture, the science of improving crop yields and assisting management decisions using the latest technology.

Outfield Technologies is targeted at high value fruit farming, primarily apples and pears. The firm currently has customers in the UK, US, Europe, and South Africa. It works by farmers buying their own drone, and then the Outfield software devises flight plans over the orchards and processes the images taken by drones. The venture was on the Accelerate Cambridge programme at the CJBS Entrepreneurship Centre for two years, developing the idea and helping them find their market fit.    

“We believe the answer is more data,” said Outfield co-founder Oli Hilbourne. “The future is not seeing the farm as a block, but seeing it on a far more granular, plant-by-plant level.”  

By counting the fruit on branches and measuring trees, farmers can see where to apply fertiliser with greater precision, reducing usage and improving soil sustainability. Outfield’s software can also recommend where to start harvesting to reduce waste and labour costs. The rising cost of labour globally has become a huge issue within the agricultural sector, for reasons including Brexit, the shortage of backpackers (some of whom become seasonal workers) in New Zealand due to Covid, and the rise of the minimum wage in South Africa.  

The data gathered by drones can also predict yields. ‘Priming’ the supply chain ensures a smoother journey from orchard to the fruit bowl in your home. When an apple is picked, it is stored in a refrigerated environment for up to six months before being transported to a pack house to be washed, sorted, and packaged, before being moved to a distribution centre and finally appearing on supermarket shelves. The chain relies heavily on transportation, but by predicting yields, Outfield aims to reduce waste as distributors can anticipate fruit levels and reduce greenhouse gases caused by refrigerated storage.  

The firm believes there is a willingness to adopt more sustainable methods. “The agricultural industry needs more investment to facilitate change,” said Hilbourne. “More money for better infrastructure including rural broadband, 5G, education and more investment in start-ups.”  

Insects: your new favourite ingredient?  

“Our mission is to take edible insects mainstream,” said Yum Bug co-founder Leo Taylor. The company sells crickets – both minced and roasted – to whip up something a bit different in the kitchen. The company’s website includes an endorsement from celebrity chef Prue Leith, a judge on The Great British Bake Off, for the product’s “delicious crunch”. 

The focus, however, is getting on restaurant menus because it ties into the firm’s ethos of introducing people to eating insects. The business plan reflects experience honed from running a market stall on London’s Brick Lane, through to the business mentoring provided by Cambridge Social Ventures, part of the Cambridge Centre for Social Innovation at CJBS. Yum Bug regularly supplies five restaurants, with dishes featuring insects including cricket mince tapas, nachos, and Asian cuisine. “Small sharable dishes work best,” said Taylor. “By eating loaded fries or tapas, people aren’t having to commit to a meal, but they are trying the product, and hopefully coming back for more.” 

Insects are an incredible superfood – proportionally containing more protein than beef, and more potassium than bananas – while requiring a fraction of the space, water, and feed than traditional livestock. They are also already eaten regularly in over 80% of countries around the world.

“Climate change is the issue,” said Taylor. “It’s mission-critical for the survival of humanity. The food system is a huge part of it. 80% plus of deforestation in the Amazon is now specifically beef rearing. Insects provide one of a spectrum of solutions that need to be implemented to create some more equilibrium with our environment.” 

Food waste – could maggots hold the answer?

If you find eating insects hard to digest, they appear lower down in the food chain in another venture – aimed at the fight against food waste. Better Origin is a CJBS-backed company hoping to make a dent in the world’s food waste mountain – the UN estimates 17% of global food production is currently thrown away.

Better Origin feeds food waste from British supermarket Morrisons to black soldier fly larvae, and the larvae are then fed to hens on the supermarket’s egg laying farms. This effectively turns waste into feed. By replacing the hen’s usual soya feed, which is a huge contributor to rainforest loss, it’s also reducing emissions. 

“Everyone has heard of planting trees, but planting trees does nothing for someone producing food waste,” said co-founder Miha Pipan. “What we’re doing is something quite unique and quite adaptable. It has a really important role in reinforcing how food chains work and making them more reliable.” 

The company was supported by Accelerate Cambridge, and now supplies 10 insect mini-farms to Morrisons, dealing with 3000 tonnes of food waste per year, saving 2810 tonnes of CO₂e emissions annually - an equivalent, they claim, to taking over 600 cars off the road.

The firm is constrained by regulations at this stage as only certain foodstuffs are legal to feed to larvae – currently fruit, vegetables and bakery waste – but they are working with regulators to unlock more sources. 

Cultivating cells rather than rearing cattle

Cultured meat is made by growing cells under controlled conditions in a bioreactor. The United Nations says it’s not feasible to support a growing, global population of 9 billion on an animal protein-rich diet by 2050. There is currently no commercial-scale production process for cultured meat, and there are high financial and research barriers to entry. 

But Animal Alternative Technologies are focused on producing scalable production systems for any food producers to make their own cultured meat. 

The team behind the venture joined Accelerate Cambridge at CJBS only a few months after starting the company. “CJBS turned us from scientists with dreams to entrepreneurs with a plan,” said co-founder Clarisse Beurrier. “Humans have been intensifying livestock meat production for over 10,000 years and we are reaching its limits. Cellular agriculture helps us push beyond these limits. For example, whereas a chicken needs about nine calories to produce one calorie of meat, you only need two calories of input when you feed the cells directly.” 

The firm aims to reduce the carbon footprint of animal farming by more than half, eliminate the risks of infectious diseases like swine flu and help to curb antibiotic resistance. Production volume can also be easily adjusted, helping address food security issues.

While the product is still a few years away from being available, consumer research in China, one of the countries driving demand for meat, suggests people are willing to purchase lab-grown alternatives, even if priced at a premium.  

Urban farming: the future of agriculture?  

With cellular agriculture in its infancy, urban agriculture is moving to the fore as the population of cities is predicted to explode. While vertical farming of plants in limited space has been around for some time, new research looking into the ‘vertical farming of seafood’ is being developed by CJBS affiliate and Harding Scholar, Broderick House.

As part of his PhD project at Cambridge’s Department of Zoology, House is looking at farming bivalves – mussels, oysters, and clams, specifically – within city boundaries. “In terms of sustainable food options, and from a food security standpoint, being able to expand bivalve farming from the coast and into cities means you have a safe environment to produce a highly nutritious and micronutrient-rich source of food,” he said. “As the levels of acidification and microplastics rise in our oceans, and more flooding washes increasing amounts of heavy metals and waste into the seas, it is an opportunity for the bivalve industry to be proactive in realising a promising solution to global food security and the alleviation of micronutrient deficiency.”

One of the biggest challenges, of course, is water consumption. The artificial aquaculture environment cannot fully compare to farming in the ocean, but by using advanced recirculating aquaculture systems, water use can be reduced, as only 10% of the water in the tank must be changed every day: “If you’re comparing it to traditional agricultural livestock – cows, pork, chicken, or even other forms of protein such as soya, that are farmed in fields, it uses much less water, and provides competing levels of protein,” said House.

While sustainability would, at first glance, need to be offset by building infrastructure to farm bivalves inland, there is the potential to repurpose existing buildings which would help decrease carbon emissions from transportation. House points out that the biggest carbon footprint in aquaculture is the feed for the livestock, and he is trying, in collaboration with Cambridge’s Algal Innovation Centre, to develop more sustainable options such as photosynthetic algae.

To help translate his research into the business world, House has been supported by the EnterpriseTECH and EnterpriseTECH STAR programmes at the CJBS Entrepreneurship Centre. “CJBS has been a fantastic resource and community,” he said. “The business ecosystem here has provided important tools to engage with industry leaders and parliament members in a constructive and informed way to help ensure my PhD research has a positive role in shaping the future of global food security.”

Cambridge Judge Dean: agricultural changes would benefit society

“The agricultural sector, when it comes to producing food and distributing it mainly to the cities, is actually the single most important source of carbon emissions in the world,” said Professor Mauro Guillén, Dean of Cambridge Judge Business School. 

 “Agriculture is a part of the economy that right now we think of as being relatively small, and it is in terms of employment and its contribution to GDP, at least in developed countries. But in most of the world that’s still developing, agriculture is a very large sector of the economy in terms of employment and it’s also one that is not very productive. 

“We could vastly improve, for example, our efficiency in the use of water, in the use of fertilisers, in the use of so many other things. In Europe and the United States, we waste about 30% of the food that reaches our table. We could also do another very important thing when it comes to food production, which is to try to produce the food closer to where the consumer is, to reduce transportation costs. Urban agriculture is a great idea because not only are you cutting transportation costs, in addition, you’re growing plants, and you’re helping recycle carbon emissions.”

Originally published on the CJBS website

Design by Sarah Collins

All images via Getty Images

The text in this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

TopBuilt with Shorthand Summary: 

The Entrepreneurship Centre at Cambridge Judge Business School is supporting new ventures to improve sustainability in agriculture to meet the demands of a growing global population.  

Image: Affiliation (schools and institutions): Cambridge Judge Business SchoolSchool of TechnologyDepartment of ZoologySchool of the Biological SciencesPeople (our academics and staff): Mauro GuillénBroderick HouseSubject (including Spotlight on ... where applicable): spin-outInnovationbusinessagricultureSustainable agriculturefarmingClimate changeStoriesSection: ResearchSuper Tags: EnvironmentBusiness

The off-patent drug that could protect us from future COVID-19 variants

Mon, 05/12/2022 - 16:00
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'script', document); //--> Shorthand Story Body:  LinkedInTwitterFacebook The off-patent drug that could protect us from future COVID-19 variants

By Craig Brierley

Coronavirus (Credit: BlackJack3D/Getty Images)

Coronavirus (Credit: BlackJack3D/Getty Images)

  • Cambridge scientists have shown that a widely-used drug to treat liver disease can prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection or reduce COVID-19 severity
  • The drug has minimal side effects, is cheap, and should protect against future variants of SARS-CoV-2
  • Their unique study involved 'mini-organs', animal research, donated human organs, volunteers and patients
Scientists have identified a drug that can be repurposed to prevent COVID-19 in research involving a unique mix of ‘mini-organs’, donor organs, animal studies and patients.

The research, published today in Nature, showed that an existing drug used to treat a type of liver disease is able to ‘lock’ the doorway by which SARS-CoV-2 enters our cells, a receptor on the cell surface known as ACE2. Because this drug targets the host cells and not the virus, it should protect against future new variants of the virus as well as other coronaviruses that might emerge.

If confirmed in larger clinical trials, this could provide a vital drug for protecting those individuals for whom vaccines are ineffective or inaccessible as well as individuals at increased risk of infection.

Dr Fotios Sampaziotis, from the Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute at the University of Cambridge and Addenbrooke’s Hospital, led the research in collaboration with Professor Ludovic Vallier from the Berlin Institute of Health at Charité.

Dr Sampaziotis said: “Vaccines protect us by boosting our immune system so that it can recognise the virus and clear it, or at least weaken it. But vaccines don’t work for everyone – for example patients with a weak immune system – and not everyone have access to them. Also, the virus can mutate to new vaccine-resistant variants.

“We’re interested in finding alternative ways to protect us from SARS-CoV-2 infection that are not dependent on the immune system and could complement vaccination.

"We’ve discovered a way to close the door to the virus, preventing it from getting into our cells in the first place and protecting us from infection.”

Dr Fotios Sampaziotis, University of Cambridge and Addenbrooke’s Hospital

From mini-organs and animals…

Dr Sampaziotis had previously been working with organoids – ‘mini-bile ducts’ – to study diseases of the bile ducts. Organoids are clusters of cells that can grow and proliferate in culture, taking on a 3D structure that has the same functions as the part of the organ being studied.

Using these, the researchers found – rather serendipitously – that  a molecule known as FXR, which is present in large amounts in these bile duct organoids, directly regulates the viral ‘doorway’ ACE2, effectively opening and closing it. They went on to show that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), an off-patent drug used to treat a form of liver disease known as primary biliary cholangitis, ‘turns down’ FXR and closes the ACE2 doorway.

In this new study, his team showed that they could use the same approach to close the ACE2 doorway in ‘mini-lungs’ and ‘mini-guts’ – representing the two main targets of SARS-CoV-2 – and prevent viral infection.

Lung organoids (Credit: Teresa Brevini)

Lung organoids (Credit: Teresa Brevini)

The next step was to show that the drug could prevent infection not only in lab-grown cells but also in living organisms. For this, they teamed up with Professor Andrew Owen from the University of Liverpool to show that the drug prevented infection in hamsters exposed to the virus, which are used as the ‘gold-standard’ model for pre-clinical testing of drugs against SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, the hamsters treated with UDCA were protected from the delta variant of the virus, which was new at the time and was partially resistant to existing vaccines.

“Although we will need properly-controlled randomised trials to confirm these findings, the data provide compelling evidence that UDCA could work as a drug to protect against COVID-19 and complement vaccination programmes, particularly in vulnerable population groups.”

Professor Andrew Owen, University of Liverpool

Bile duct/liver organoid infected with SARS-CoV-2 - red indicates the virus. (Credit: Teresa Brevini)

Bile duct/liver organoid infected with SARS-CoV-2 - red indicates the virus. (Credit: Teresa Brevini)

Close up of bile duct/liver organoid infected with SARS-CoV-2 - red indicates the virus. (Credit: Teresa Brevini)

Close up of bile duct/liver organoid infected with SARS-CoV-2 - red indicates the virus. (Credit: Teresa Brevini)

Bile duct/liver organoid treated with UCDA and exposed to SARS-CoV-2 - red indicates the virus (Credit: Teresa Brevini)

Bile duct/liver organoid treated with UCDA and exposed to SARS-CoV-2 - red indicates the virus (Credit: Teresa Brevini)

… to human organs…

Next, the researchers worked with Professor Andrew Fisher from Newcastle University and Professor Chris Watson from Addenbrooke’s hospital to see if their findings in hamsters held true in human lungs exposed to the virus.

The team took a pair of donated lungs not suitable for transplantation, keeping them breathing outside the body with a ventilator and using a pump to circulate blood-like fluid through them to keep the organs functioning while they could be studied. One lung was given the drug, but both were exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Sure enough, the lung that received the drug did not become infected, while the other lung did.

“This is one of the first studies to test the effect of a drug in a whole human organ while it’s being perfused.

"This could prove important for organ transplantation – given the risks of passing on COVID-19 through transplanted organs, it could open up the possibility of treating organs with drugs to clear the virus before transplantation.”

Professor Andrew Fisher, Newcastle University

Perfused lung (Credit: Teresa Brevini)

Perfused lung (Credit: Teresa Brevini)

… to people

Moving next to human volunteers, the Cambridge team collaborated with Professor Ansgar Lohse from the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany.

“We recruited eight healthy volunteers to receive the drug. When we swabbed the noses of these volunteers, we found lower levels of ACE2, suggesting that the virus would have fewer opportunities to break into and infect their nasal cells – the main gateway for the virus.”

Professor Ansgar Lohse, University Medical Centre, Hamburg-Eppendorf

While it wasn’t possible to run a full-scale clinical trial, the researchers did the next best thing: looking at data on COVID-19 outcomes from two independent cohorts of patients, comparing those individuals who were already taking UDCA for their liver conditions against patients not receiving the drug. They found that patients receiving UDCA were less likely to develop severe COVID-19 and be hospitalised.

A safe, affordable, variant-proof drug

First author and PhD candidate Teresa Brevini from the University of Cambridge said: “This unique study gave us the opportunity to do really translational science, using a laboratory finding to directly address a clinical need.

“Using almost every approach at our fingertips we showed that an existing drug shuts the door on the virus and can protect us from COVID-19. Importantly, because this drug works on our cells, it is not affected by mutations in the virus and should be effective even as new variants emerge.”

Teresa Brevini, University of Cambridge

Dr Sampaziotis said the drug could be an affordable and effective way of protecting those for whom the COVID-19 vaccine is ineffective or inaccessible. “We have used UDCA in clinic for many years, so we know it’s safe and very well tolerated, which makes administering it to individuals with high COVID-19 risk straightforward.

“This tablet costs little, can be produced in large quantities fast and easily stored or shipped, which makes it easy to rapidly deploy during outbreaks – especially against vaccine-resistant variants, when it might be the only line of protection while waiting for new vaccines to be developed. We are optimistic that this drug could become an important weapon in our fight against COVID-19.”

Fotios Sampaziotis and Teresa Brevini in front of a perfused lung

Fotios Sampaziotis and Teresa Brevini in front of a perfused lung

Published 5 December 2022

Funding
The research was largely funded by UK Research & Innovation, the European Association for the Study of the Liver, the NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre ((organoid and human lung studies) and the Evelyn Trust.

Reference
Brevini, T, et al. FXR inhibition may protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection by reducing ACE2. Nature; 5 Dec 2022; DOI:

TopBuilt with Shorthand Summary: 

Cambridge scientists have identified a drug that can be repurposed to prevent COVID-19 in research involving a unique mix of ‘mini-organs’, donor organs, animal studies and patients.

Image: Affiliation (schools and institutions): School of Clinical MedicineDepartment of MedicineWellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell InstituteCambridge Fights COVIDCambridge Infectious DiseasesCambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology and Infectious Disease (CITIID)External Affiliations: Addenbrooke's HospitalCambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation TrustUniversity of LiverpoolUniversity of NewcastleUK Research and Innovation (UKRI)NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research CentreEvelyn TrustPeople (our academics and staff): Fotios SampaziotisTeresa BreviniSubject (including Spotlight on ... where applicable): COVID-19CoronavirusStem cellsInfectious diseasesStoriesanimal researchSection: ResearchNews type: NewsSuper Tags: Health and medicine

Fitness levels can be accurately predicted using wearable devices – no exercise required

Thu, 01/12/2022 - 10:00

Normally, tests to accurately measure VO2max – a key measurement of overall fitness and an important predictor of heart disease and mortality risk – require expensive laboratory equipment and are mostly limited to elite athletes. The new method uses machine learning to predict VO2max – the capacity of the body to carry out aerobic work – during everyday activity, without the need for contextual information such as GPS measurements.

In what is by far the largest study of its kind, the researchers gathered activity data from more than 11,000 participants in the Fenland Study using wearable sensors, with a subset of participants tested again seven years later. The researchers used the data to develop a model to predict VO2max, which was then validated against a third group that carried out a standard lab-based exercise test. The model showed a high degree of accuracy compared to lab-based tests, and outperforms other approaches.

Some smartwatches and fitness monitors currently on the market claim to provide an estimate of VO2max, but since the algorithms powering these predictions aren’t published and are subject to change at any time, it’s unclear whether the predictions are accurate, or whether an exercise regime is having any effect on an individual’s VO2max over time.

The Cambridge-developed model is robust, transparent and provides accurate predictions based on heart rate and accelerometer data only. Since the model can also detect fitness changes over time, it could also be useful in estimating fitness levels for entire populations and identifying the effects of lifestyle trends. The results are reported in the journal npj Digital Medicine.

A measurement of VO2max is considered the ‘gold standard’ of fitness tests. Professional athletes, for example, test their VO2max by measuring their oxygen consumption while they exercise to the point of exhaustion. There are other ways of measuring fitness in the laboratory, like heart rate response to exercise tests, but these require equipment like a treadmill or exercise bike. Additionally, strenuous exercise can be a risk to some individuals.

“VO2max isn’t the only measurement of fitness, but it’s an important one for endurance, and is a strong predictor of diabetes, heart disease, and other mortality risks,” said co-author Dr Soren Brage from Cambridge’s Medical Research Council (MRC) Epidemiology Unit. “However, since most VO2max tests are done on people who are reasonably fit, it’s hard to get measurements from those who are not as fit and might be at risk of cardiovascular disease.”

“We wanted to know whether it was possible to accurately predict VO2max using data from a wearable device, so that there would be no need for an exercise test,” said co-lead author Dr Dimitris Spathis from Cambridge’s Department of Computer Science and Technology. “Our central question was whether wearable devices can measure fitness in the wild. Most wearables provide metrics like heart rate, steps or sleeping time, which are proxies for health, but aren’t directly linked to health outcomes.”

The study was a collaboration between the two departments: the team from the MRC Epidemiology Unit provided expertise in population health and cardiorespiratory fitness and data from the Fenland Study – a long-running public health study in the East of England – while the team from the Department of Computer Science and Technology provided expertise in machine learning and artificial intelligence for mobile and wearable data.

Participants in the study wore wearable devices continuously for six days. The sensors gathered 60 values per second, resulting in an enormous amount of data before processing. “We had to design an algorithm pipeline and appropriate models that could compress this huge amount of data and use it to make an accurate prediction,” said Spathis. “The free-living nature of the data makes this prediction challenging because we’re trying to predict a high-level outcome (fitness) with noisy low-level data (wearable sensors).”

The researchers used an AI model known as a deep neural network to process and extract meaningful information from the raw sensor data and make predictions of VO2max from it. Beyond predictions, the trained models can be used for the identification of sub-populations in particular need of intervention related to fitness.

The baseline data from 11,059 participants in the Fenland Study was compared with follow-up data from seven years later, taken from a subset of 2,675 of the original participants. A third group of 181 participants from the UK Biobank Validation Study underwent lab-based VO2max testing to validate the accuracy of the algorithm. The machine learning model had strong agreement with the measured VO2max scores at both baseline (82% agreement) and follow-up testing (72% agreement).

“This study is a perfect demonstration of how we can leverage expertise across epidemiology, public health, machine learning and signal processing,” said co-lead author Dr Ignacio Perez-Pozuelo.

The researchers say that their results demonstrate how wearables can accurately measure fitness, but transparency needs to be improved if measurements from commercially available wearables are to be trusted.

“It’s true in principle that many fitness monitors and smartwatches provide a measurement of VO2max, but it’s very difficult to assess the validity of those claims,” said Brage. “The models aren’t usually published, and the algorithms can change on a regular basis, making it difficult for people to determine if their fitness has actually improved or if it’s just being estimated by a different algorithm.”

“Everything on your smartwatch related to health and fitness is an estimate,” said Spathis. “We’re transparent about our modelling and we did it at scale. We show that we can achieve better results with the combination of noisy data and traditional biomarkers. Also, all our algorithms and models are open-sourced and everyone can use them.”

“We’ve shown that you don’t need an expensive test in a lab to get a real measurement of fitness – the wearables we use every day can be just as powerful, if they have the right algorithm behind them,” said senior author Professor Cecilia Mascolo from the Department of Computer Science and Technology. “Cardio-fitness is such an important health marker, but until now we did not have the means to measure it at scale. These findings could have significant implications for population health policies, so we can move beyond weaker health proxies such as the Body Mass Index (BMI).”

The research was supported in part by Jesus College, Cambridge and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), part of UK Research and Innovation (UKRI). Cecilia Mascolo is a Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge.

 

Reference:
Dimitris Spathis et al. ‘Longitudinal cardio-respiratory fitness prediction through wearables in free-living environments.’ npj Digital Medicine (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41746-022-00719-1

Cambridge researchers have developed a method for measuring overall fitness accurately on wearable devices – and more robustly than current consumer smartwatches and fitness monitors – without the wearer needing to exercise.

fitnesshealthmortalityArtificial intelligenceneural networkPublic healthSoren BrageCecilia MascoloDimitris SpathisEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)UK Research and Innovation (UKRI)Department of Computer Science and TechnologyMedical Research Council (MRC) Epidemiology UnitSchool of TechnologySchool of Clinical MedicineJesus CollegeYou don’t need an expensive test in a lab to get a real measurement of fitness – the wearables we use every day can be just as powerful, if they have the right algorithm behind themCecilia MascoloOscar Wong via Getty ImagesWoman checking her smart watch and mobile phone after run


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YesNews type: NewsSuper Tags: Health and medicineTechnology

New study suggests climate change may be affecting animal body size

Tue, 29/11/2022 - 10:25

New evidence shows that some mammals increase in size in warmer settings, upsetting established norms and suggesting that climate change may be having an unexpected impact on animal body size.

The study*, published in Scientific Reports, finds that recent changes in treeshrew body size subvert two of the most studied ecogeographical rules about body size variation within species.

According to Bergmann’s rule, named after nineteenth century German biologist Carl Bergmann who described the pattern in 1847, individuals have larger body sizes in colder climates (typically at higher latitudes). 

The second rule, named Foster’s rule after a 1964 study by mammalogist J. Bristol Foster, predicts that island populations of small-bodied species are on average larger in size than their mainland counterparts. 

The researchers, led by Maya Juman [2022], a Gates Cambridge scholar and PhD student at the University of Cambridge, tested the rules across space and time simultaneously in the Northern Treeshrew, a small mammal native to South and Southeast Asia. They used a dataset of museum specimens collected across a wide spatial and temporal range, along with associated historical climate data. They found that both rules have inverted rapidly over time: body size variation in specimens collected in the late 19th century followed the patterns predicted by Bergmann’s and Foster’s rules, but the pattern reversed in the 20th century.

According to the study, the size of Northern Treeshrews on the mainland has consistently increased over time in warmer settings, with temperature being the most important predictor of body size, although not the only one. Rainfall, for example, also plays a role, with areas of higher precipitation seeing a more pronounced relationship between temperature and body size. 

The researchers also discovered an interaction between the two rules: Bergmann’s rule is upheld in island populations but not mainland ones, so the island rule is upheld at higher latitudes but not closer to the equator. The study demonstrates the complex array of dynamic and potentially interdependent factors that affect body size, which is linked to critical physiological, ecological and behavioural traits.

The researchers, from the University of Cambridge, Yale University, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and McGill University, call for experts to re-examine ecogeographical rules in light of global warming to see whether climate change may be rewriting the rules themselves. “Our study is the first to demonstrate a rule reversal over time in any species,” said Juman. “We need to revisit some of our assumptions about size variation as our climate continues to rapidly change.”

*Recent and rapid ecogeographical rule reversals in Northern Treeshrews by Maya M. Juman (Cambridge; Yale), Virginie Millien (McGill), Link E. Olson (University of Alaska) and Eric J. Sargis (Yale). Picture credit: Burmese tree shrew ( Tupaia belangeri ) in Planckendael by Vassil. Courtesy of Wikimedia commons.

 

A new study finds treeshrews increase in size in warmer settings, contrary to established norms.

Maya JumanDepartment of Veterinary MedicineGates CambridgeSchool of the Biological SciencesOur study is the first to demonstrate a rule reversal over time in any species. We need to revisit some of our assumptions about size variation as our climate continues to rapidly change.Maya JumanBurmese tree shrew ( Tupaia belangeri ) in Planckendael by Vassil. Burmese tree shrew ( Tupaia belangeri ) in Planckendael by Vassil. Courtesy of Wikimedia commons


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YesLicence type: Public DomainRelated Links: Gates Cambridge TrustNews type: NewsSuper Tags: Health and medicine

Mussel memory

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 10:02
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'script', document); //--> Shorthand Story Body:  Mussel memory

How fresh-water mussels and a stretch of the River Thames connected two postgraduate scientists separated by over half a century.

By Charis Goodyear

“It's brought a part of my life back that I never thought would be reawakened,” says Christina (Tina) Negus, whose 1964 postgraduate research on mussels in a stretch of the River Thames near Reading, has been replicated 55 years later by Cambridge Zoology PhD student, Isobel Ollard.

Unbeknown to Christina, who left academia shortly after her postgraduate degree at the University of Reading, her 1966 research paper has been widely cited in the decades since its publication and is seen as a seminal study in fresh-water mussel literature.

“To our knowledge it’s one of the earliest properly quantitative surveys of freshwater mussels anywhere,” says Isobel.

“Tina’s paper clearly demonstrated that the dark rings seen on mussel shells are very much like tree rings in that one forms each year. You can use these rings to measure growth rates.”

Isobel Ollard holding fresh-water mussels

Isobel Ollard holding fresh-water mussels

Christina recorded growth rates, biomass and productivity of the mussels as well as measuring the population densities of different species within different areas. Practically this meant spending hours at a time out on the river collecting mussels – using a net to dip while standing on the bank or a grabbing device to collect samples while leaning over the side of a boat (borrowed from the nearby university sailing club). Christina even enlisted the help of the local Thames conservancy to help with river transects – a method used to measure the density of plants and animals.

Paintings of mussels by Christina ~ 1963

Paintings of mussels by Christina ~ 1963

“Mussels are a great indicator of the health of the river ecosystem,” says Isobel. “We thought it would be interesting to go back and see what’s changed at the site.”

To aid the replication of the study, Isobel got in touch with Christina with the help of Reading University, where Christina had studied as a postgraduate. “I was surprised and delighted,” says Christina on hearing that Isobel would be carrying out follow-up research.

Christina Negus

Christina Negus

Both scientists share a love of the natural world and a passion for on-the-ground research.

“I was an outdoor person,” says Christina, “all my interests were to do with wildlife and landscapes. So getting wet and dirty in the river wasn’t a problem!”

Christina fossil hunting

Christina fossil hunting

For Isobel it was a visit to a Field Study Centre in Devon that cemented her interest in zoology. “I realised how much there was to learn just by looking at things and observing a species' behaviour outdoors.”

On comparing notes, it became clear that the stretch of the River Thames where both women spent many hours surveying, has changed dramatically. Christina recalls the isolation of the rural setting, often seeing nobody all day except the occasional fisherman.

“It’s definitely not out in the sticks anymore,” says Isobel. Today the area is built-up and urban. Isobel explains how dog-walkers on the footpath running along the river would ask strings of questions: “What are you looking for, what are you going to do with the mussels, can you eat them?”

More seriously, Christina describes the two-year-sore-throat she developed while carrying out her fieldwork in the 1960s – which she now suspects was caused by polluted water. Since then, legislation has meant the river has been cleaned up, so Isobel didn’t face the same risk to her health.

Some of the mussel species found in the River Thames

Some of the mussel species found in the River Thames

Isobel explains how in shallower (1.5m) regions of the river she stood in the water, decked in a dry suit and carried out hand-sampling. This involved placing a 1m square quadrat on the riverbed and then manually feeling for mussels within the area of the wire frame.

“You quickly get used to the size, shape and feel of the mussels you’re looking for, although it’s easy to get taken in by rocks and you do end up pulling out the odd beer can – or worse – as well!“

“To sample the deeper parts of the river we used dredging from a boat,” says Isobel. She describes how a dredge was attached to a long rope which she held over the side of the boat and lowered into the sediment. The boat driver then drove upriver, pulling the dredge along, filling it with sediment. At the end of each stretch the dredge was raised and Isobel searched through the contents for mussels.

Isobel holding Swan Mussel (Anodonta cygnea)

Isobel holding Swan Mussel (Anodonta cygnea)

So, what effect has the intervening half a century had on the mussel population and health of the river?

Strikingly, Isobel found that mussel numbers had declined by almost 95%, with one species – the depressed river mussel – completely gone. The results have been published today in the Journal of Animal Ecology, the same journal that carried Christina’s original study.

“This is a serious decline and is likely to have knock-on effects. These results are an important warning about the health of our mussel populations, and wider river ecosystems.”

Isobel explains that because mussels are filter feeders – an adult mussel is able to filter up to 40L of water a day – this can help to prevent the build-up of harmful algal blooms. Mussels also support other riverbed species and their presence is associated with higher riverbed biodiversity.

The invasive Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

The invasive Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

“Regular monitoring, including of species we think are common and non-threatened is needed to catch declines early. By identifying where declines are happening and which species are affected, we can build a better picture of what the causes might be as well as targeting conservation actions.

“We also need stronger protections for freshwater ecosystems, to protect the health not just of mussels but all the other unique species which inhabit them.”

Paintings of mussels by Christina ~ 1963

Paintings of mussels by Christina ~ 1963

Isobel explains that speaking to Christina was invaluable to carrying out her research on a practical level, but it’s also added a personal dimension to the project. “It’s been lovely to have this sense of building on other people's research.”

And what advice does Christina have for Isobel? “Stay interested and stay fascinated, whatever you end up doing.” 

Published 28 November 2022
With thanks to:

Christina Negus
Isobel Ollard

Words:
Charis Goodyear

Photographs:
Isobel Ollard

The text in this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

TopBuilt with Shorthand Image: Affiliation (schools and institutions): Department of ZoologySt Catharine's CollegeCorpus Christi CollegeSchool of the Biological SciencesSidney Sussex CollegeClare CollegePeople (our academics and staff): David AldridgeIsobel OllardSubject (including Spotlight on ... where applicable): Sustainable EarthEnvironmentSection: ResearchNews type: Features